GRK202H1 Study Guide - Short I, Aeschylus, Liquid Consonant

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Published on 16 Apr 2013
School
UTSG
Department
Greek
Course
GRK202H1
Page:
of 3
The Dactylic Hexameter
Definitions:
Each verse has six foots, and each foot usually is a dactyl.
Found in Homers poetry (eg. Illiad, Odyssey)
A dactyl= DUH duh duh
A spondee= DUH DUH
A trochee= DUH duh
Note:
The very last syllable of each verse can be either a long syllable or a short syllable.
Foots one to five can be either a dactyl or a spondee
(but foot number five is usually a dactyl)
Foot number six will only be either a spondee or a trochee.
You mark each individual foot by means of a slash.
The Iambic Trimeter
Definitions:
Each verse is composed of three metra, and each metra is composed of two iambs.
Found in tragedy (eg. Aeschylus’, and Euripedes’ plays)
An iamb= duh DUH
Note:
The first syllable of each metra can be either a long syllable or a short syllable.
The very last syllable of each verse can be either a long syllable or a short syllable.
You mark each individual foot by means of a slash.
How to Identify Syllables as Long or Short
Long syllables:
any diphthong (eg. ou, ei)
any long vowel (eg. omega, eta, long alpha, long I, long upsilon)
Short syllables:
e and o
short alpha, short I, short upsilon
Note:
oi and ai sometimes count as short syllables
there are rules that bend the above rules
How to see if an alpha/ i/ upsilon is long or short:
see whether the syllables surrounding them are long or short
General Exceptions to the Rules for identifying syllables as long or short
the correption rule:
= if there is a long vowel at the end of a word, but the following word begins with any
vowel or diphthong, then the long vowel of the first word will turn into a short vowel
elision:
= = if there is a short vowel at the end of a word, but the following word begins with
any vowel or diphthong, then the short vowel is elided (eg. pi turns into phi)
the synzesis rule:
= two vowels are counted as one long syllable
(eg. e and omega counted as one long syllable)
the mute liquid rule:
= if a short vowel is followed by a mute consonant (k,g,p, phi,khi, d, theta, beta, t)
followed by a liquid consonant (l,m,n,r), then the short vowel will be either a long or
short syllable to suit metrical purposes
the two consonant rule:
= any vowel followed by two consonants will be a long syllable
eg. omicron followed by psi
eg. omicron followed by nu and delta)
misc.
Words that go duh duh duh are scansioned as DUH duh duh
Words that go DUH duh DUH are scansioned DUH DUH DUH

Document Summary

Each verse has six foots, and each foot usually is a dactyl. Foots one to five can be either a dactyl or a spondee (but foot number five is usually a dactyl) Foot number six will only be either a spondee or a trochee. Each verse is composed of three metra, and each metra is composed of two iambs. Found in tragedy (eg. aeschylus", and euripedes" plays) The first syllable of each metra can be either a long syllable or a short syllable. The very last syllable of each verse can be either a long syllable or a short syllable. You mark each individual foot by means of a slash. How to identify syllables as long or short. Long syllables: any diphthong (eg. ou, ei) any long vowel (eg. omega, eta, long alpha, long i, long upsilon) Short syllables: e and o short alpha, short i, short upsilon.