HPS202 Final - Short Anwser

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University of Toronto St. George
History and Philosophy of Science and Technology

HPS 202 Final Study Guide Notebook: UfT Created: 12/16/2012 5:09 PM Updated: 12/16/2012 6:31 PM URL: https://www.google.com/search?q=sputnik&aq=0&oq=sputnik&aqs=chrome.0.0j… 12 of these concepts will be in short answer form. You are required to answer 8. The high wheeled ordinary First produced in Britain in 1868 by James Starley. Grew to dominance of the cycle market during the 1870s Front wheel drive and front wheel steering Fast, dangerous, difficult to ride. It required significant athletic ability and strength to balance and move the cycle. The speed and height made it very dangerous and prone to crashing Strongly masculine in its culture. extremely difficult to ride in victorian female clothing Also known as the Penny Farthing or Boneshaker The safety cycle Produced during the late 1870s. Grew to Popularity in the mid 1880s. Front and back wheels roughly the same size, rear chain drive with front wheel steering increased safety and decreased athletic ability. Pneumatic rubber tire developed in 1888 to increase comfort. designed to appeal to a group beyond the young athletic crowed to whom the ordinary appealed. Existed along side the ordinary serving a different community until roughly 1890, when the safety largely dominated the market. safety cycle began to make cycling accessible to women. Critics feared cycling would rob women of femininity Some physicians claimed it would cause the development of unsightly leg muscles, damage the uterus, cause epilepsy, and redirect energy needed for bearing children Even medical supporters warned that women needed to maintain proper posture and should cycle slowly in order to preserve femininity, grace, and avoid over exerting themselves. The electric car Electric and gasoline powered cars were developed side by side in the late 19th and early 20th century Electric car marketed to women largely in the 1890s-late 1910s. Had significantly less power and a shorter range than combustion engines. The infrastructure of recharge stations never developed outside major cities. They were much more limited vehicles than gasoline powered cars but were much quieter and cleaner. “practically all modern electric cars are arranged with special reference to their ease of control by women–that is, the controlling and reverse levers are simple in operation and few in number. They are placed and arranged so as not to catch and tear the dress.” C.H. Claudy, “The Lady and her Electric” Country Life in America, January 1912 Claudy was an advocate of women driving and wrote automotive articles for a collection of popular magazines. “It is no Childs Play to run a motor car. No license should be granted to anyone under 18...and never to a woman, unless, possibly, for a car driven by electric power.” Montgomery Rollins, Outlook. Social pressure for women to drive electric cars attempts to create ‘separate spheres’ of automobile technology. Most families can’t afford to buy two cars, and the gasoline car is the most practical, especially after ford introduces the mass produced automobile ~1910- 1914 The increased number of women driving gasoline cars out of necessity and a gradual shift in social culture (partly due to the activities of women in the Great War) in the early 20th century break down the barrier to women driving gas cars and by the 1920s the ‘feminine’ electric car is obsolete. Doctrine of separate spheres An extremely important aspect of the underlying social structure in 19th Century Europe and North America. The doctrine of separate spheres rested on the assumption that men and women were inherently different and that the “natural” moral virtue, passivity and weakness of women suited them only for lives within a private sphere and the duties of childcare. The more robust and vigorous “nature” of men naturally suited them to functioning in the public sphere and placed on their shoulders the responsibility of protecting and guiding women. The “Feminine ideal” was based on the loving submission to men and the acceptance of the home as the woman’s appropriate sphere of action. Any challenge to this idea was perceived as threatening to destroy the traditional family structure. Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902) American women’s rights activist and suffragette Believed the bicycle promoted rational dress reform, gave women greater freedom and challenged oppressive and artificial gender norms. “The bicycle...[will] cultivate all of the cardinal virtues; it will inspire women with more courage, self-respect, and self-reliance and make the next generation more vigorous of mind and body” The bicycle as a symbol of the ‘new woman’ The rational dress reform: A gradual 19th century movement tomake women’s clothing more practical. Particularly strong at the end of the 19th century, it was associated with bloomers and the bicycle through the practical needs of cycling women. Women’s suffrage movement: The movement for women’s right to vote beginning at the end of the 18th century.. Women were given the vote in 1917 in Canada, 1918 in the U.K. and 1920 in the U.S. Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902) Outspoken advocate of both women’s cycling and women’s suffrage. Annie Londonderry (1870-1947) First woman to cycle around the world. Also an outspoken activist for women’s rights. The Automatic Washer Pre-industrial Laundry Difficult and demanding chore Required filling several large tubs with buckets of hot water for washing and rinsing Laundry scrubbed on wash board, then scrubbed again in the rinsing water, and the run through wringer to drain the water out The wringer washing machine Gas or electric powered ‘wringerwashers’ in use in North America by 1904 Wringer washers remained fairly labour intensive to use Relatively simply built, easy to maintain and repair. Wringer washers lasted significantly longer than automatic washers Still the favored type of washing machine into the 1960s in Canada The automatic washer (spin-dryer) Required little attention Not designed to be long lasting. They were marketed as stylish and modern with the assumption that women would want to update them frequently They were slightly more expensive than the wringer washer but the assumption was that the significant decrease in labour they represented would make up for the extra cost. Caught on rapidly in the U.S. They were widely adopted during the late 30s and 40sDid not become popular in Canada until the late 60s early 70s Women consider the purchase of a washer in the context of the technological system of the house. A cheaper washer could enable the mechanization of another task Women also consider the machine in terms of its moral value. The automatic washing machine was associated with waste in Canada Manufacturers and marketers assumed women were considering the purchase just as between two machines and did not understand the complex place of the automatic washer in Canadian culture The Industrial Revolution in the home Margaret Sanger 1879-1966 Trained nurse and one of the most prominent advocates for birth control Saw birth control as a way of addressing problems of over population, and the burden and danger of unwanted pregnancies Also saw sex as an important liberating force. Believed in a deep psychological need for women to be able to fully address their sexuality. Established the Birth Control League in 1915 which later became the Planned Parenthood Federation of America Established first birth control clinic in Brooklyn 1916 Internationally known for her advocacy of birth control and women’s rights The Dye Industry Aniline dyes developed by English chemist William Perkin in 1856 from coal tar. These were artificial dyes that produced better, brighter, and longer lasting colors than natural dyes. Also produced a collection of new colors but identifying new commercialy viable aniline base dyes is difficult. Perkin and most English companies produce new dyes through an empirical method, just combining coal tar with any likely reagent and seeing what happens. Friederich August Kekulé approached the problem of producing new dyes by seeking the chemical structure of aniline. Theorized that the carbon atom forms four bonds (1857)and that benzene has a hexagonal ring structure (1865) This methodology allows German chemists to identify the chemical structure of aniline dyes (and later a new class of Azo dyes) Kekulé’s discoveries, coming out of industrial research, laid the groundwork for the theoretical science of Organic Structural Chemistry. German dye companies in the late 19th century develop industrial scientific research. Science explicitly for the sake of producing technologies. (Though theoretic discoveries are produced as well) Pharmaceutical companies developing in the 20th century also employ these practices of industrial science and scientific mass labour. The Pill By 1905 the chemicals produced by the body and controlling the functioning of the organs are labeled hormones and those chemicals that had been demonstrated to effect development of secondary sex characteristics and sexual behaviors were labeled sex hormones. by 1928 George Corner and Williard M. Allen identify Progesterone as one of the keys to ovulation and implantation of the egg. Further research described the hormonal structures during the menstural cycle and the relations between progesterone, follical-stimulating hormone (FSH)estrogen, and luteinizing hormone (LH) By 1945 The scientific community quickly saw the implications progesterone held for birth control but were unable to openly discuss it. Legal and social structures prevented open scientific discussion of birth control in the U.S. 1940s: Chemist Russell Marker develops a method for synthesizing progesterone from sapogenin. Forms the basis for a new industry in Mexico synthesizing steroids from desert plants, including Progesterone 1951: McCormick offers to fund Pincus’s lab if he works on developing hormonal birth control. Pincus becomes the agent that brings together the various developments among other scientists who cannot openly talk to each other 1949-51: Carl Djerassi and Frank B. Colton independently develop versions of progesterone that are effective when taken orally. Provides a cheap, effective, source of progesterone. 1955: Using John Rock’s data as well as tests of the Djerassi and Colton versions Pincus is able to announce successful clinical trials of a hormonal birth control pill. 1955-1957: mass trials on populations in Puerto Rico, Haiti, and Mexico city. Produce a fail rate of 1.7%significantly higher than any other contraceptive measure at the time. 1957: Searle presents Enovid to F.D.A. as a therapeutic measure for women suffering from menstrual disorder 1959: Searle presents Enovid to F.D.A as oral contraceptive. F.D.A. gives approval in 1960 Not used by the population Sanger expected. Her eugenic interests had focused on birth control as a means of controlling over population and reducing the reproductive rates of the unfit. The primary users of the pill turned out to be women in the middle and upper classes in developed countries. Pill gave women control of their own reproduction. The first contraceptive that was entirely controlled by women rather than men. Gave them the freedom to begin to acknowledge and address female sexual desires. Played an important role as a catalyst in the social and sexual revolution between 1965 and 1975. Made it acceptable to talk about sex and contraception in public Is believed to be directly related to the loss of influence of the Catholic Church in America during the late 60s. The birth control pill, however, is not the direct product of the pharmaceutical industry. It is developed in the medical research of physicians at hospitals and universities independent labs, and eventually in the pharmaceutical companies under pressure from advocacy groups. If the Pill is a technology does that make the practices that produce it technological? What is the line between technology and science? Irène Curie Frédéric Joliot 1934 Irené Curie and Frederick Joliot demonstrate ‘artificial radiation’ and the potential to change one element into another. The Curie Circle The Light Water Reactor Uses the heat from the nuclear reaction to create steam, which is then used to drive a turbine to create electricity Used as the power source in Admiral Hyman G. Rickover’s design for the nuclear sub in 1954 A scaled up version of that reactor was used as the basis for the 1957 Shippingport Reactor built by Westing house The nuclear power network in the U.S. developed rapidly but the oversight and safety research lagged behind. This was an important factor in the problems and accidents experienced by plants in the 70s. 1942 First Nuclear reactor built by Enrico Fermi 1953-54 Eisenhower announces the Atoms for Peace program and congress allows private ownership and operation of nuclear reactors. 1957 Construction of the Shippingport reactor, first full scale civilian atomic power generator Slow industrial growth in the late 50s and early 60s with a massive surge in industrial interest in 1965 Three Mile Island 1979 Valve failure at the Three Mile Island plant in Pensilvania led to the exposure of the reactor core for over an hour The first major nuclear reactor failure in North America and at the time the worst in the world It occurred right after the head of the Metropolitan Edison Company attempted to assure the public that the TMI plant was so over engineered it was impossible for it to melt down Massively shook the public faith in the statements by power companies and the government that nuclear power plants were safe and strictly regulated The popular reaction to nuclear technology fluctuated from anxiety, to support to resistance. Three Mile Island was the first major nuclear disaster and triggered a rapid growth in resistance to nuclear power, but anti-nuclear feeling had already been on the rise because of the problems of waste disposal and the increased environmental concern of the 60s. Artillery Developed out of a collection of innovations during the late 19th and early 20th century that changed the smooth-bore canon into the artillery gun. They had a much increased range compared to the canon and fired explosive porjectiles. Artillery was expected to play a central role in the future of the military and came to eclipse many of the other military innovations of the early 20th century. Artillery production dominated the structure of war as they required innovations and alterations to methods of production, organization, transportation, and storage to become useful in the military. World War 1 proved the assumptions about artilleries role to be inaccurate. The unexpected success of defensive tactics and trench warfare against the textbook offensive strategies on both sides changed the shape of the war and radically reduced the utility of artillery weapons. Blitzkrieg (Tactical Bombing) Blitzkrieg (or tactical bombing) was the German bombing strategy produced in the lead up to, and used during, WWII. The principles of Blitzkrieg were to use bomber aircraft in support of land troops including tanks and infantry. The bombers would move in ahead of the tanks to bomb roads, bridges, and military targets to suppress the movement of enemy troops. This committed the German military industrial complex to a certain relationship with aircraft technology. It encouraged the development of fighter aircraft and faster moving, more aggressive, short range bombers. Intended to be a practice of fast bombing raids on military targets to support the movement of ground troops. Axis forces largely abandoned th
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