HPS 202 Final Study Guide
Created: 12/16/2012 5:09 PM Updated: 12/16/2012 6:31 PM
12 of these concepts will be in short answer form. You are required to
The high wheeled ordinary
First produced in Britain in 1868 by James Starley. Grew to dominance of the
cycle market during the 1870s
Front wheel drive and front wheel steering
Fast, dangerous, difficult to ride. It required significant athletic ability and
strength to balance and move the cycle. The speed and height made it very
dangerous and prone to crashing
Strongly masculine in its culture.
extremely difficult to ride in victorian female clothing
Also known as the Penny Farthing or Boneshaker
The safety cycle
Produced during the late 1870s. Grew to Popularity in the mid 1880s.
Front and back wheels roughly the same size, rear chain drive with front wheel
steering increased safety and decreased athletic ability.
Pneumatic rubber tire developed in 1888 to increase comfort.
designed to appeal to a group beyond the young athletic crowed to whom the
ordinary appealed. Existed along side the ordinary serving a different community until roughly 1890,
when the safety largely dominated the market.
safety cycle began to make cycling accessible to women.
Critics feared cycling would rob women of femininity
Some physicians claimed it would cause the development of unsightly leg
muscles, damage the uterus, cause epilepsy, and redirect energy needed for
Even medical supporters warned that women needed to maintain proper posture
and should cycle slowly in order to preserve femininity, grace, and avoid over
The electric car
Electric and gasoline powered cars were developed side by side in the late 19th
and early 20th century
Electric car marketed to women largely in the 1890s-late 1910s.
Had significantly less power and a shorter range than combustion engines. The
infrastructure of recharge stations never developed outside major cities. They
were much more limited vehicles than gasoline powered cars but were much
quieter and cleaner.
“practically all modern electric cars are arranged with special reference to their
ease of control by women–that is, the controlling and reverse levers are simple in
operation and few in number. They are placed and arranged so as not to catch
and tear the dress.”
C.H. Claudy, “The Lady and her Electric” Country Life in America, January 1912
Claudy was an advocate of women driving and wrote automotive articles for a
collection of popular magazines.
“It is no Childs Play to run a motor car. No license should be granted to anyone
under 18...and never to a woman, unless, possibly, for a car driven by electric
power.” Montgomery Rollins, Outlook.
Social pressure for women to drive electric cars attempts to create ‘separate
spheres’ of automobile technology.
Most families can’t afford to buy two cars, and the gasoline car is the most
practical, especially after ford introduces the mass produced automobile ~1910-
The increased number of women driving gasoline cars out of necessity and a
gradual shift in social culture (partly due to the activities of women in the Great
War) in the early 20th century break down the barrier to women driving gas cars
and by the 1920s the ‘feminine’ electric car is obsolete.
Doctrine of separate spheres An extremely important aspect of the underlying social structure in 19th Century
Europe and North America. The doctrine of separate spheres rested on the
assumption that men and women were inherently different and that the “natural”
moral virtue, passivity and weakness of women suited them only for lives within a
private sphere and the duties of childcare. The more robust and vigorous
“nature” of men naturally suited them to functioning in the public sphere and
placed on their shoulders the responsibility of protecting and guiding women. The
“Feminine ideal” was based on the loving submission to men and the acceptance
of the home as the woman’s appropriate sphere of action. Any challenge to this
idea was perceived as threatening to destroy the traditional family structure.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902)
American women’s rights activist and suffragette
Believed the bicycle promoted rational dress reform, gave women greater
freedom and challenged oppressive and artificial gender norms.
“The bicycle...[will] cultivate all of the cardinal virtues; it will inspire
women with more courage, self-respect, and self-reliance and make the
next generation more vigorous of mind and body”
The bicycle as a symbol of the ‘new woman’
The rational dress reform: A gradual 19th century movement tomake
women’s clothing more practical. Particularly strong at the end of the 19th
century, it was associated with bloomers and the bicycle through the
practical needs of cycling women.
Women’s suffrage movement: The movement for women’s right to vote
beginning at the end of the 18th century.. Women were given the vote in
1917 in Canada, 1918 in the U.K. and 1920 in the U.S.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902) Outspoken advocate of both women’s
cycling and women’s suffrage.
Annie Londonderry (1870-1947) First woman to cycle around the world.
Also an outspoken activist for women’s rights.
The Automatic Washer Pre-industrial Laundry
Difficult and demanding chore
Required filling several large tubs with buckets of hot water for washing
Laundry scrubbed on wash board, then scrubbed again in the rinsing
water, and the run through wringer to drain the water out
The wringer washing machine
Gas or electric powered ‘wringerwashers’ in use in North America by 1904
Wringer washers remained fairly labour intensive to use
Relatively simply built, easy to maintain and repair. Wringer washers
lasted significantly longer than automatic washers
Still the favored type of washing machine into the 1960s in Canada
The automatic washer (spin-dryer)
Required little attention
Not designed to be long lasting. They were marketed as stylish and
modern with the assumption that women would want to update them
They were slightly more expensive than the wringer washer but the
assumption was that the significant decrease in labour they represented
would make up for the extra cost.
Caught on rapidly in the U.S. They were widely adopted during the late
30s and 40sDid not become popular in Canada until the late 60s early 70s
Women consider the purchase of a washer in the context of the
technological system of the house. A cheaper washer could enable the
mechanization of another task
Women also consider the machine in terms of its moral value. The
automatic washing machine was associated with waste in Canada
Manufacturers and marketers assumed women were considering the
purchase just as between two machines and did not understand the
complex place of the automatic washer in Canadian culture
The Industrial Revolution in the home
Margaret Sanger 1879-1966
Trained nurse and one of the most prominent advocates for birth control
Saw birth control as a way of addressing problems of over population, and the
burden and danger of unwanted pregnancies
Also saw sex as an important liberating force. Believed in a deep psychological
need for women to be able to fully address their sexuality.
Established the Birth Control League in 1915 which later became the Planned
Parenthood Federation of America
Established first birth control clinic in Brooklyn 1916
Internationally known for her advocacy of birth control and women’s rights
The Dye Industry
Aniline dyes developed by English chemist William Perkin in 1856 from coal tar.
These were artificial dyes that produced better, brighter, and longer lasting
colors than natural dyes.
Also produced a collection of new colors but identifying new commercialy viable
aniline base dyes is difficult.
Perkin and most English companies produce new dyes through an empirical
method, just combining coal tar with any likely reagent and seeing what happens.
Friederich August Kekulé approached the problem of producing new dyes by
seeking the chemical structure of aniline.
Theorized that the carbon atom forms four bonds (1857)and that benzene has a
hexagonal ring structure (1865)
This methodology allows German chemists to identify the chemical structure of
aniline dyes (and later a new class of Azo dyes)
Kekulé’s discoveries, coming out of industrial research, laid the groundwork for
the theoretical science of Organic Structural Chemistry.
German dye companies in the late 19th century develop industrial scientific
research. Science explicitly for the sake of producing technologies. (Though
theoretic discoveries are produced as well)
Pharmaceutical companies developing in the 20th century also employ these
practices of industrial science and scientific mass labour. The Pill
By 1905 the chemicals produced by the body and controlling the functioning of the
organs are labeled hormones and those chemicals that had been demonstrated
to effect development of secondary sex characteristics and sexual behaviors were
labeled sex hormones.
by 1928 George Corner and Williard M. Allen identify Progesterone as one of the
keys to ovulation and implantation of the egg.
Further research described the hormonal structures during the menstural cycle
and the relations between progesterone, follical-stimulating hormone
(FSH)estrogen, and luteinizing hormone (LH)
By 1945 The scientific community quickly saw the implications progesterone held
for birth control but were unable to openly discuss it. Legal and social structures
prevented open scientific discussion of birth control in the U.S.
1940s: Chemist Russell Marker develops a method for synthesizing progesterone
from sapogenin. Forms the basis for a new industry in Mexico synthesizing
desert plants, including Progesterone
1951: McCormick offers to fund Pincus’s lab if he works on developing hormonal
birth control. Pincus becomes the agent that brings together the various
developments among other scientists who cannot openly talk to each other
1949-51: Carl Djerassi and Frank B. Colton independently develop versions of
progesterone that are effective when taken orally. Provides a cheap, effective,
1955: Using John Rock’s data as well as tests of the Djerassi and Colton versions
Pincus is able to announce successful clinical trials of a hormonal birth control
1955-1957: mass trials on populations in Puerto Rico, Haiti, and Mexico city.
Produce a fail rate of 1.7%significantly higher than any other contraceptive
measure at the time.
1957: Searle presents Enovid to F.D.A. as a therapeutic measure for women
suffering from menstrual disorder
1959: Searle presents Enovid to F.D.A as oral contraceptive.
F.D.A. gives approval in 1960
Not used by the population Sanger expected. Her eugenic interests had focused
on birth control as a means of controlling over population and reducing the
reproductive rates of the unfit. The primary users of the pill turned out to be
women in the middle and upper classes in developed countries.
Pill gave women control of their own reproduction. The first contraceptive that
was entirely controlled by women rather than men. Gave them the freedom to
begin to acknowledge and address female sexual desires.
Played an important role as a catalyst in the social and sexual revolution between 1965 and 1975.
Made it acceptable to talk about sex and contraception in public
Is believed to be directly related to the loss of influence of the Catholic Church in
America during the late 60s.
The birth control pill, however, is not the direct product of the pharmaceutical
industry. It is developed in the medical research of physicians at hospitals and
universities independent labs, and eventually in the pharmaceutical companies
under pressure from advocacy groups.
If the Pill is a technology does that make the practices that produce it
technological? What is the line between technology and science?
Irène Curie Frédéric Joliot
1934 Irené Curie and Frederick Joliot demonstrate ‘artificial radiation’ and the
potential to change one element into another.
The Curie Circle
The Light Water Reactor
Uses the heat from the nuclear reaction to create steam, which is then used to
drive a turbine to create electricity
Used as the power source in Admiral Hyman G. Rickover’s design for the nuclear
sub in 1954
A scaled up version of that reactor was used as the basis for the 1957
Shippingport Reactor built by Westing house
The nuclear power network in the U.S. developed rapidly but the oversight and
safety research lagged behind. This was an important factor in the problems and
accidents experienced by plants in the 70s.
1942 First Nuclear reactor built by Enrico Fermi
1953-54 Eisenhower announces the Atoms for Peace program and congress
allows private ownership and operation of nuclear reactors.
1957 Construction of the Shippingport reactor, first full scale civilian atomic
Slow industrial growth in the late 50s and early 60s with a massive surge in
industrial interest in 1965
Three Mile Island 1979 Valve failure at the Three Mile Island plant in Pensilvania led to the
exposure of the reactor core for over an hour
The first major nuclear reactor failure in North America and at the time the worst
in the world
It occurred right after the head of the Metropolitan Edison Company attempted to
assure the public that the TMI plant was so over engineered it was impossible for
it to melt down
Massively shook the public faith in the statements by power companies and the
government that nuclear power plants were safe and strictly regulated
The popular reaction to nuclear technology fluctuated from anxiety, to support to
resistance. Three Mile Island was the first major nuclear disaster and triggered a
rapid growth in resistance to nuclear power, but anti-nuclear feeling had already
been on the rise because of the problems of waste disposal and the increased
environmental concern of the 60s.
Developed out of a collection of innovations during the late 19th and early 20th
century that changed the smooth-bore canon into the artillery gun.
They had a much increased range compared to the canon and fired explosive
porjectiles. Artillery was expected to play a central role in the future of the
military and came to eclipse many of the other military innovations of the early
Artillery production dominated the structure of war as they required innovations
and alterations to methods of production, organization, transportation, and
storage to become useful in the military.
World War 1 proved the assumptions about artilleries role to be inaccurate. The
unexpected success of defensive tactics and trench warfare against the textbook
offensive strategies on both sides changed the shape of the war and radically
reduced the utility of artillery weapons.
Blitzkrieg (Tactical Bombing) Blitzkrieg (or tactical bombing) was the German bombing strategy produced in
the lead up to, and used during, WWII.
The principles of Blitzkrieg were to use bomber aircraft in support of land troops
including tanks and infantry. The bombers would move in ahead of the tanks to
bomb roads, bridges, and military targets to suppress the movement of enemy
This committed the German military industrial complex to a certain relationship
with aircraft technology. It encouraged the development of fighter aircraft and
faster moving, more aggressive, short range bombers. Intended to be a practice
of fast bombing raids on military targets to support the movement of ground
Axis forces largely abandoned th