HPS202 Mid Term Prep.pdf

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History and Philosophy of Science and Technology

IndustrializationManufacture before industrialization The putting out systemTurnpikes and Canals The transportation system that made the factory possibleThe London Brewers Industrialization of the brewing industry PUTTING OUT SYSTEMA system of manufacture where raw materials are purchased by a central agent and distributed to a collection of independent artisans working in their own homes to be fashioned into goods The central agent pays by the piece and collects the finished product from the artisans to be sold on generally as refined material PUTTING OUT SYSTEM 2 EXAMPLEEntrepreneur purchases bails of woolWool is distributed to artisan households in the CotswoldsChildren card the wool women spin the wool into thread and men weave it into cloth These stages would not always take place in the same household but in the Cotswolds they generally didEntrepreneur picks up the cloth from the artisan households generally to be sold on to tailors sail makers etcit is a means of producing a refined material for a further stage of productionTURNPIKES AND CANALSMid 17th century roads in Britain are poorly maintained and unreliable making transport slow and dangerousLate 17th century sees the development of turnpike companies building reliable all weather roads and charging tolls to pay for maintenanceLate 17thearly 18th century sees enlargement of river navigations and development of a canal systemBy 1750 all towns in England Wales and Scotland are connected by a reliable road system and canals connect the major areas of industrial production sources of raw materials and marketsEFFECTS OF IMPROVED TRANSPORTLowered costs and increased reliability make it cheaper to move raw materials and finished products around the countryIntroduction of catalogue sales encourage standardization of productsIncreased trade requires increasing work force and makes it increasingly difficult to keep track of raw materials and prevent embezzlement of materials THE FACTORYFactory is a new way of organizing labor that offers greater control of production and permits the scaling up of old technologies and the introduction of new technologiesFactory embodies the industrial ideals of more faster cheaperPORTER BREWINGHow to brew beer and aleWhat makes porter such a good industrial productTransporting the raw materialsScaling upAutomatingAncillary IndustriesTHE VATVat storage introduced in 1730s Replaces the 36 gallon wooden barrel with vats capable of storing thousands of gallonsAllows for cheaper storage of porter while it fermentsAle cannot be stored this way because it is more temperature sensitive and the fermentation would spoilLarge vats become a status symbol and breweries compete to have the largest vatsVats encourage factory setting because they require brewers to redesign the buildings Traditional breweries are no longer big enough to satisfy demand for porterLONDON FACTORY BREWINGPorter first brewed in 1722 by Robert HarwoodFirst factory brewery established in 1748 by Samuel Whitbread Purpose built building to centralize productionMake use of the same technologies but scaled up to accommodate massive productionMechanization of many tasks such as grinding the malt and powering pumps to move beer performed using animal power The millers dray horse a particularly large and powerful horseINTRODUCTION OF THE STEAM ENGINEBrewers among the first to adopt the Watt steam engine1784 4 horse power engine installed at Goodwyns and a ten horse power engine at WhitbreadsKeeping horses in London more expensive than transporting coal in from the minesWatt sets horse power at 33000 ftlb perminute based onthe power output of the millers dray Watts definition of horsepower refers to how many millers dray horses an engine could replace ANCILLARY INDUSTRIESIndustrial level production always creates a network of ancillary industriesAncillary industries are trades that support or draw from another industry andwould likely not exist without that other industry It is a symbiotic system the central industry relies on the ancillary industries it creates or supports in order to function profitably in the same way the ancillary industries rely on the central industry for survivalIndustries supported or created by brewingCoppers barrel makersMakers of copper vessels and pumps for moving beerLondon Bakeries and whiskey and gin distilleriesYeast dryers and merchants
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