HPS211 Final Examination Review.docx

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History and Philosophy of Science and Technology
Curtis Forbes

HPS211 Final Examination Review th Week 6 -Quantum Revolution Relativity NewtonianAbsolute time -clocks everywhere will tick together Newton- LuminousAether Ather- imponderable fluid light Absolute space Many problems and did not motivate Einstein Made wrong by the Michelson-Morsely Experiment Einstein: G and SG -Motivated by symmetry Princinple of Relativity: Special Relativity -laws of electricity and magnetism valid in all non-accelerating reference frames -constancy of the speed of light General relativity -includes gravity Quantum Mechanics Joseph Louis Lagrange -Lagrangian Mechanics -Aparticle will always travel along the shortest path or a path that minimizes energy Maxwell -Light as an electromagnetic wave, light is represented as an oscilation in an aether th Week 7 -The Darwinian Revolution Charles Darwin -father of modern evolutionary biology -he had to fight through the entrenched views of William Paley (Argument for design, watchmaker analogy) Geological background: Uniformitarainism- Lyell -refers to explaining geology through still operant degrees of force) -Steady-state Earth- constant cycle of eruption and decay -Actualism- unknown but operant kinds of causes -comes from the ‘Vulcanist’school of geology (Hutton) -Old Earth Catastrophism- Cuvier -Denies actualism, uniformitarianism, and steady state earth- everything is result of catastrophic events -comes from the werner school of Neputinism -old world His own Background -He was originally trained by Sedgewick -brought Lyell book on a Beagle’s voyage and was a uniformitarian by 1839 Social Context: Philosphy of science William Whell -good theories display consilience (unification of disparate phenomena) John Herschel -vera causa, good theories employ only familiar causes -in geology actualism is vera causa Both agreed that good science looks like physics Competiting models of evolution: PRE-darwin: Lamarck’s Acquired Characterisicts Chambers Erasmus POST-darwin: Intelligent Design Huxley Reception of Darwin: He had both British andAmerican supporters- British Supporters are:Hooker and Huxley American ally: Asa Gray, who thought that natural selection was compatible with natural theology (American publishing of the origin) LouisAgassiz, who used evolution against slavery There were arguments with evolution: 1) Jenkin’s 3 counter argumens (Earth too young, little variation from breeding, swamping argument) 2) Kingsley- Purposeless evolution (theistic evolution, evolution as a divine process) 3) Wallace- Man just another animal (special evolutionary mechanism for man) Evolution and process -Similarities between Haeckel’s evolutionary tree and Darwins’ -Herbert spencer coined the term survival of the fittest, and also synthetic philosophy (evolution describes everything) 4 Eras of Evolution: 1. Pre-Darwin Period (1859 pre) 2. Reception and Reaction to Darwin’s work 3. The ‘Eclipse of Darwin 4. Modern Evolutionary Synthesis Eclipse of Darwinism- used to describe the period before the modern synthesis when evolution was widely believed, but a growing number of alternatives to natural selection were theorized Objections to natural selection- heredity, varation, its just mean, age of the earth Darwin believed in his Pangesis theory, gemules, which mixed to produce offspring Mendel -Father of genetics -Hydbridization of pea plants: crossed pea plants with 7 characterisitcs -2 Laws: Law of segregation (only one on form of gene specifying a trait can be carried in a particular germ cell (egg, sperm, etc). Law of independent assortment: Each trait is inherited independently of any other Hugo De Vries -Developed mutation theory Single mutation could make primrose plants differ dramatically from their parents -one of the most popular theories of evolution in early 20 century -argued for discrete units of inheritance -saltationist (not gradual but jumps in speciation)  no need for evolution, only mutation needed only -similar experiment to Mendel but with evening primrose Gives birth to 2 schools 1. Biometricians Francis Galton, Karl Pearson, continuous variation, propents of natural selection, field based 2. Medelians William Bateson, Hugo De Vries, discontinuous variation, Mutation, lab-based J.B.S Haldane The Causes of Evolution Assumed selection acted on a large and freely interbreeding population Peppered Moth Theodosius Dobzhansky Trained in Russia Importance of Natural history and genetics Natural selection not only mechanism of change but also stability The Modern Synthesis: Julian Huxley Shows that Menedlian genetics is comptabile with natural selection and gradual evolution Week 8 - Revolutionary views of Biology and Human Nature DNA 3 Main People: Linus Pauling -Father of quantum chemistry -Nobel prize in chemistry -Protein molecules -Triple Helix -X Ray diffraction Watson and Crick -Competitive, several failure, model building Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin -X ray diffraction between Aand B DNA -Francis and Crick got results to prove their model Scientific context of the discovery: -Biology as the poor cousin of physics -Atom bomb showed the deadly power of science (Franck Report says shouldn’t have used the bomb) - ‘Big Science’: funded science by the gov -Quantum mechanics, genes as quanta by Schrodinger- accredited biology Social Background -Avery’s research (Bacterial transformation, DNAis inherited) -Paulings research -Both were funded by the Rockefeller Foundation Warren Weaver:
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