JHE353 OCT 1.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
History and Philosophy of Science and Technology
Marga Vicedo

JHE353 OCT 1, 2012 TUTORIAL Concept of change, now new species and come up with how to better understand it. Over time they change what allowed allowing that change to happen. Concept for species transmutation, need more time to allow for change to occur. Why is idea of change in context of enlightenment? Change applies something needs to be changed. Cuvier wanted stability tired of revolution and of social order so wanted some stability to be given, had other scientist radicals who wanted change and another who don’t want chnge Radical change materialism based on natural law and other groups to use new scientific evidence to support old theories. evidence - World 6 days how find scientific - Buffon molten rock experiment earth was hot and cold - And 6 days is a metaphor not taken literally - Really religious people and devout to the church try to explain the people with scientific facts coming up - Flood with Newtonian laws, laws that govern everything this was burnet – make sense of them. Relating to noahs flood – flood was huge phenomenon and changed the structure of the earth and caused displacement of plants and animals over large land - why no flood for 6000 years. Wanted mechanical law to explain this. Combine bible and mechanical theory the peole in mechanical law criticized him two cannot fit together and religious saying you are misinterpreting the bible – example of turning point - James usher – mathematical analyses to get the begiing of the world oct 26 9 am. Used biblical narrative - Idea of divine creation – few hundred or thousand to defend on must abandon single episode of creation and say multiple creations – - Time being limited for one creation time must be expanded – idea was genesis was a metaphor allows one to keep belief and and also believe in new laws - Beging to camps radical materialism and devout religion and now idea bible is a metaphor and barrier slowly crumble - Now try to merge new science - Experiment in molten ball – melted ball and allow to cool and allows surface to form and how long to cool and using mathematical caclcualtion took sphere to cool took earth to cool - Earth was molten ball that cooled and 74832 years old and 7 epochs and reconciled with 6 days of creation - Buffon believed in gradualism – process was not revolutionary but slow and took over place over long period of time - Not up front with his ideas. Hinted extinction but never on top of it same with age of earth - He was very suspicious of this number – even though drastic improvement it doesn’t make sense he hinted it was millions of years old but was censored - We can accept 6000 to 75000 but that to millions forget about it - Even if earth was that long earth was to long and space between earth and humanity was unacceptable - This is biblical creationism DEEP TIME - Plutonist (vulcanist) theory - Volcanic activity shaped earth’s surface - Central heat as geological force - Continuous and gradual changes – eg. Buffoons experiment - Hutton – theory of earth 1785? - Heat acted a geological force - Gradual change – james hutton 1785 - Hutton set foundation for uniformatarianism - The earths surface and then flood covers volcano and heat coming out of volanco and causes water to shrink and more water evaporates and receded and make sense of biblical flood to go with flood - Supposes flood occurred where did the water go and why now have land, where did the water go - To them must make sense bc natural laws make sense by using natural laws - Give a way of how supernatural forces account for it BILBLICAL CREATIONISM - Reconcile biblical narratives with scientific support and evidence - Can the story of genesis be explained by the physical and or mechanical laws - Thomas Burnet – the sacred theory of the earth: naturalistic account with Newtonian science Neptunist theory - Single flood – waters receded, layers of rock - Abraham Werner - Water itself changed earths surface - Neptun more pop then plutonists - Person advocated pluton – hutton young scientist - Werner had school of mineralogy created classification system - And water gradually receeded – see affect of tide and used it on a global scale - As receeded powerful enough to move sediment - Why fossils found part of earth and not the other - Studying earths layers see layers of rock exposed as water receeded - Led that oceans were so high covered mountains and exposed land that was already there that’s why whales fossils on top of mountains - Pop bc of who he was – challenged plutonist theory Catastrophist - “Revolutions” (sudden and violent) – changed the surface of the earth - Cuvier - Explain explicit change, revolutions as possible in society and analo
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