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penguin history of canada


Department
History
Course Code
HIS102Y1
Professor
C.Pennington

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Introduction:
-Canada : 2
nd
largest country on earth; victim of too much geography; extent from
sea (east) to sea (west) to sea (north; with pop/prosperity unevenly distributed
-Bering Strait : a tiny stretch of shallow water between Alaska and Siberia
-NOT everything was covered with ice; the area b/w Alaska and Siberia i.e.
Beringia was dry, though cold/unpleasant
-movement of people—BUT difficult to trace; humans reached Alaska around 12
thousand years ago, southwestern US 11 thousand years ago
-as ice melted, land exposed 1
st
become tundra—then spruce—finally woodland
-earliest humans to inhabit N. America lived by hunting/fishing
-from 11 thousand years ago, they used implements of stone/wood up to 15
th
century i.e. era of “discovery” or contact with European explorers
-people practiced agriculture in southwest Asia—require organization, but can
break away from hunting/ gathering as the bas is for existence, also support
larger numbers of people, thus making possible larger states
Americas didn’t follow the same path, b/c:
-unfavorable geography; divided by mountains and deserts—thus making
communications difficult
-fewer animals/plants were suitable for cultivation
* settlement of what is now Canada proceeded slowly by the gradual disappearance
of the ice sheet; with the weight of the ice cap removed, the land rose; finally the
melting ice cap finished as a source of water, e.g. 5 “Great lakes of E. Canada
First Peoples:
-Paleo-Indians :1
st
inhabitants of N. America; hunted in bands of 15-50— Clovis
culture (stage 1)
-as the climate improved, Clovis culture evolved into a more densely populated
form; period of adaptation as people of N. America became differentiated by
locale/languages/local culturesArchaic (stage 2)
-population of the plains rose/fell considerably depending on the weather
Northwest Coast:
-heavily forested; mild climate; abundant rainfall; never-ending supply of fish
-paradise for hunter-gatherers—reliable food supply/freedom from the climatic
extremes of most of the rest of N. America
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