HIS109 Exam Study Guide.docx

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Published on 16 Apr 2013
School
UTSG
Department
History
Course
HIS102Y1
HISTORY109 EXAM 2012
Terms
1. who is the person
2. what is the person best known for
3. what did they do
4. when did they live/where did the person live
5. why is this significant( why are we looking at this figure in context
of western European history)
Not a person:
1. who the main people involved were
2. what the movement was about
3. what it solved
4. when it took place
5. where the movement took place
6. why is this significant, why does it matter to study of west European
history
Martin Luther:
- 1483-1546
- German monk and professor of theology
- Disputed the claim that freedom from God‘s punishment for sin should be purchased with
money indulgences. Instead, salvation is not earned by good deeds but only as a gift of
God‘s grace through faith.
- Translated the bible from Latin to German so that it was more accessible impacted the
church
- His marriage set a model for clerical marriage, allowing Protestant priests to marry
- His 95 Thesis (1517) critique of the papacy launched the protestant reformation
- Refusal to retract his writings as demanded by Pope Leo X at the Diet of Worms 1531
resulted in excommunication
- 1) treasury of merits popes right to sell this treasury to be resolved of your sins this way
and get out of purgatory, and he was against this, he believed in RELIGION THROUGH
FAITH ALONE simple religion
- thought that never stop studying the bible etc.
- equal before god, priests could marry
- certain countries such as France and Britain and Spain that had close ties to the pope who
got political favors, but Germans didn‘t have close ties to the pope so they wouldn‘t have
the benefits, being catholic wasn‘t in their political economic interests
- Protestantism stuck in areas where the sovereign adopted the religion
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Robert Owen page 447
- 1771-1858
- welsh social reformer credited for his belief in utopian socialism
- Manager and partner of a cotton mill in Manchester/Britain
- Didn‘t like the moral standards of factory workers – very bad conditions
- Reform Act of 1832 stimulate English trade union movement
- Trade union group singed up 500000 people that represented the whole country
- Believed that the trade union would become big enough that government would help
- Businesses blacklisted members of unions = they went on strike = bankruptcy
- 1835 movement collapsed
- Preparation for Karl Marx
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
- 1712-1778 = entire 18th century
- Philosopher and radical political theorist
- Social Contract attacked privilege and inequality
- Politics and morality should not be separated
- THE MOST INFLUENCIAL PHILOSOPHER
- The social contract= bible of the French revolution
- ―les philosophes‖
- catalyst of French revolution= revolutionary influence
- solution to the ‗ancient regime‘
- born in Geneva
- Believed in a perfect world: DNA was Geneva= utopian model
- He said industrial revolution corrupted mankind, wrote about it, entered in a competition
against Diderot
- NATURAL STATE= KEY TO HAPINESS, EVERYTHING ELSE WAS CORRUPTING
US FROM THAT
- Hated formal religion believed HIGHLY in spiritualism [individual feeling that matters]
- Rousseau gave a model very different those of Montesquieu: gave a model where
everything in current society had to be abolished and one that enabled every citizen
to have a say in this government
Giuseppe Garibaldi
- 1807-1882
- Italian general and politician on of Italy‘s ―fathers of the fatherland‖
- Revolutionary leader who led the fight to free Sicily and Naples from the Hapsburg
empire; the lands were then peaceable annexed to Sardinia to produce a unified Italy
- Drove pope out of the city
- Failed revolution in 1848 with Mazzini
- Credited as one of the unifiers of Italy
- Seeded all powers to Victor Immanuelle 2, = king of unified Italy
Treaty of Westphalia
- 1648
- Collection of treaties linked to the fact that they ended the Thirty Years War
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- Signed in Westphalia. 1648. 30 years war, it ended.
- 30 years war: defenestration of Prague. Religious war (started) Ferdinand prince of
Poland, ruler of Bohemia, protestant controlled territory, year later: elected holy roman
emperor, rebellion against Ferdinand, in 10 years Ferdinand was going to push protestant
forces out of Germany and claim it for catholic side, King of Sweden Gustavus Aldolfus,
dies in middle of war. Ramification: against king of Sweden, but in 1635 who entered war
on side of protestants: France/Richelieu. Ended on territorial struggle. Hapsburg war.
Sovereignty was re-evaluated. Claims of HRE EMPEROR to Germany was gone,
Germany devastated. France became dominant power on continent.
Humanism
- Renaissance 1400
- Aimed to replace the scholastic emphasis on logic and philosophy with the study of
ancient languages, literature, history, and ethics
- Florence and Naples
- Rather than train professionals with strict practice, humanists sought to create a citizenry
able to speak and write with clarity, thus being capable of better engaging in civic life.
- Petrarch, da Vinci
On the Origin of Species
- 1848 Charles Darwin
- Scientific literatures which is the foundation of evolutionary biology
- Natural Selection, Studied finches
- Diversity of life arose by common descent through a branching pattern of evolution
- Protestant reformation inspired interpretation of the bible
- Influenced Herbert Spender and the Survival of the Fittest which influenced Hitler
Edict of Nantes- 1598
- Issued by Henry IV of France, granted the Calvinist Protestants of France rights in a
nation, which was still considered essentially Catholic.
- Aimed to promote civil unity by offering general freedom of conscience to individual
- Marks the end of religious wars in France
John Locke
- 1632-1704
- Father of classical liberalism
- English philosopher and influential enlightenment thinker
- Influenced American declaration of independence
- Theory of mind origin of the concept of the identity and self.
- Tabula rasa = government with the consent of the governed
V.I. Lenin
- 1870-1924
- Russian Marxist revolutionary and communist politician
- Leader of the Bolsheviks, headed the Soviet state from 1917-1924
- Lead the October revolution of 1917
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Document Summary

Disputed the claim that freedom from god s punishment for sin should be purchased with money indulgences. Instead, salvation is not earned by good deeds but only as a gift of. Translated the bible from latin to german so that it was more accessible impacted the church. His marriage set a model for clerical marriage, allowing protestant priests to marry. His 95 thesis (1517) critique of the papacy launched the protestant reformation. Refusal to retract his writings as demanded by pope leo x at the diet of worms 1531 resulted in excommunication. 1) treasury of merits popes right to sell this treasury to be resolved of your sins this way and get out of purgatory, and he was against this, he believed in religion through. Protestantism stuck in areas where the sovereign adopted the religion. Welsh social reformer credited for his belief in utopian socialism. Manager and partner of a cotton mill in manchester/britain.

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