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Course Code
Carol Chin
Study Guide

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Lecture 1
Note Taking
*don’t memorize dates or numbers of any kind
Read the beginning and the end, don’t read the entire thing
Pay attention to HER titles
Always read the counterpoint/counter example
Ancient Civilizations, Ancient Empires
1. Introduction: Mesopotamia: Inventing Our World
2. Geography and History
3. From City States to Empires
4. Mesopotamia and Its Neighbors: Culture Trade, Technology and War
5. Egypt and Its Neighbors
6. Conclusion: Empires, Encounters, and Exchanges in Ancient World
Mesopotamia: Inventing Our World
So many things in ancient Mesopotamia helped invent our world
Use of number 6 and 60 (60 min in an hour)
Ale was invented by Mesopotamians
Geography and History
Based around Tigris and Euphrates
When the rivers flood, the soil is extremely fertile for agriculture
Mesopotamia had an agriculture community that increased in wealth
Not sure what caused cities to come about
oHot, Dry
Used rivers for transportation, donkey carriages/carts,
Who else was nearby?
oConnections and access to people all around them
oMigration was prevalent

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Near East, Far East, Middle East
oSeeing the world from the European point of view
City States to Empires
Early Dynastic Period (2900-2350)
Group of City States, independent from each other, sometimes worked together
Ur, Uruk, Ebla, Kish, Lagash
Cities were centered around temples
King (called king now, was not called king back then) maintains power by alling with the
religious temples
Ziggurats (temples with steps)
Development of Writing (cuniform)
oWas to record the storage of goods
oTrade and commerce
oWriting became used for everything else (literature, religious, etc) afterwards
Royal Tombs
oSocial structure can be seen in the royal tombs in paintings
Akkadian Empire (2350-2150 BCE)
Came into the Mesopotamian Empire and changed a lot of things (language) and more
Epic of Gilgamesh is written down
Sumerian “Restoration” (2150-1800 BCE)
Couldn’t knit together the city states
Hard to unite Mesopotamia back to what it was, and then unite them more (destroying
city states)
Babylonian (Key Word)
Very Powerful
Hammurabi: King of the 4 Corners of the World
Developed an administrative structure
oAppointed people to collect taxes, establishes law (Code of Hammurabi)
Conquered the lower half of Mesopotamia
Assyrian Empire
Come from North, conquered all the way down to Egypt

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Wiped out the Babylonians
Sargon II was instrumental in capturing the Babylonians
Well organized, offices selected by merit not by birth
Used horses and iron weapons
Conquered people had to pay the central government (in $ or feudally)
Nineveh was the main city of Assyria
oKing would go on a royal Lion hunt and would create a plaque afterwards
Neo-Babylonian Period (612-539)
Babylon came back even stronger
Ishtar Gate
King Nebuchadnezzar
Babylonian captivity of the Jews, forcing the Israelites to come to Babylon
Mesopotamia and Its Neighbors: Culture, Trade, Technology, and War
Mesopotamia religion and other religions were very transferable
oHieroglyphics and Cuneiform came up around the same time
Wheel was invented in Mesopotamia
Written records and well organized system of trade
Diplomatic exchanges
oExchange of people, things, culture, systems
Egypt and Its Neighbors
Built around the Nile making a flood plain
Giza (mummies and pyramids)
Interactions with neighbors above and below the nile
oNubia- Kingdom of Kush
South of the Nile
Sold Slaves
Gave tribute to Egypt after being conquered
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