HIS102Y1 Final: ID TERMS - final exam part 1

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Published on 2 Oct 2015
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UTSG
Department
History
Course
HIS102Y1
Professor
HIS102
ID Terms for Final Exam
Paiza: Is a tablet of authority for the Mongol officials and envoys. It enabled the Mongol nobles and
officials to demand goods and services from civilian populations.
The Mongols established a comprehensive network of post stations to maintain
communications with their armies. Only those with proper authorization, in the form of metal
or wooden paiza tablets, were allowed use of the lodgings, supplies, and horses provided at
these post stations. The Mongolian inscription on this silver paiza reads, “By the power of the
Eternal Heaven, may the name of Mongke Khan be sacred. He who does not honour it shall
perish and die.”
Pax Mongolica: A historiographical term, modeled after the original phrase Pax Romana, which
describes the stabilizing effects of the conquests of the Mongol Empire on the social, cultural, and
economic life of the inhabitants of the vast Eurasian territory the Mongols conquered in the 13th and
14th centuries. The term is used to describe the eased communication and commerce the unified
administration helped to create, and the period of relative peace that followed the Mongols' vast
conquests.
The conquests of Genghis Khan and his successors effectively connected the Eastern world
with the Western world, ruling a territory from Southeast Asia to Eastern Europe. The Silk
Road, connecting trade centers across Asia and Europe, came under the sole rule of the
Mongol Empire. The end of the Pax Mongolica was marked by political fragmentation of the
Mongol Empire and the outbreak of the Black Death in Asia which spread along trade routes
to much of the world.
Secret History of the Mongols: The oldest surviving Mongolian-language literary work.
It was written for the Mongol royal family after Genghis Khan's death, by an anonymous
author
All the surviving texts derive from transcriptions or translations into Chinese characters
dating from the end of the 14th century, compiled by the Ming Dynasty under the name The
Secret History of the Yuan Dynasty
The Secret History is regarded as the single significant native Mongolian account of Genghis
Khan. Linguistically, it provides the richest source of pre-classical Mongolian and Middle
Mongolian. The Secret History is regarded as a piece of classic literature in both Mongolia
and the rest of the world.
Rashid al-Din: (1247–1318), a Jewish doctor who converted to Islam, served as chief minister and
architect of Ghazan’s, another convert to Islam, program of reform
He embellished Ghazan’s image as ruler, forging a new ideology of rule that portrayed
Ghazan as a devout Muslim, a Persian philosopher-king, and a second Alexander the Great
Under Rashid al-Din’s direction and guidance, court scholars compiled the Compendium of
Chronicles, a world history that glorified Mongol rulers as rightful heirs to the legacies of
Persian kings and Abbasid caliphate, and he shifted the ideological basis of the Ilkhanate
from descent of Chinggis Khan and to the role of royal protector of the Islamic faith
William of Rubruck: (c. 1220-1293) was a Flemish Franciscan missionary and explorer
His account (report) is one of the masterpieces of medieval geographical literature,
comparable to that of Marco Polo. He was a good observer and excellent writer.
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HIS102
ID Terms for Final Exam
William accompanied King Louis IX of France on the Seventh Crusade in 1248. On May 7,
1253, on Louis' orders, he set out from Constantinople on a missionary journey to convert
the Tatars to Christianity. Upon his return, he presents King Louis IX with a clear and precise
report, where he described the peculiarities of Mongolia as well as many geographical
observations.
Yuan Dynasty: 1271-1368 the time when the Mongols ruled over China
It was a power that first arose from the steppe under Genghis Khan (1167?-1294)
Khubilai: Genghis Khan’s grandson, Khubilai Khan (1215-1294), declared himself the first Yuan
emperor and encouraged foreign commerce
He was interested in controlling the thriving maritime trade along China’s southeastern coast
Since Genghis Khan’s reign, Mongol rulers were employing Muslim traders to bring precious
goods east to their courts by way of overland routes
Khubilai expanded the flow of goods by using experienced Muslim trades already based in
Quanzhou, the major seaport on China’s southeastern border
1278 Khubilai issued a decree welcoming foreign traders and travellers
Golden Horde: An independent Mongol realm created by Chinggis Khan’s grandson Batu
Its capital at Sarai is in the lower Volga River valley
The Golden Horde in Central Asia and Russia proved more durable than the Ilkhanate
In 1237, Batu led a Mongol army and conquered the Volga River Valley where he sacked the
main cities, including the outpost of Moscow. In 1240, Kiev fell to Mongol siege and Mongol
armies pushed westward into Poland and Hungary. It prompted the Roman pope to declare
a crusade against the Mongols. But feuding among the Mongol princes after the death of
Ogodei (the third son of Chinggis Khan) in 1241 halted Mongol advance into Europe. Then
Batu created the Golden Horde
Khans of the Golden Horde strongly encouraged commerce and their favourable policies
toward merchants increased the volume of trade passing through Rus lands
The Golden Horde retained its connections to the steppe and the culture of pastoral
nomadism unlike the Yuan dynasty and the Ilkhanate
In the 1310s the Golden Horde adopted Islam as its official religion—conversions to Islam
did not lead Mongols to abandon their pastoral way of life
Timur: (1336–1405) One of Sufism’s most important royal patrons and the last of the Mongol
emperors
He was born near the city of Samarkand
He rose to power in the 1370s by reuniting opposing Mongol tribes in common pursuit of
conquest
He lacked dynastic lineage, but held his empire together by force of his personal charisma
From the 1380s, his armies pursued campaigns of conquest, moving westward across Iran
into Mesopotamia and Russia and eastward into India
In 1400—1401, he seized and destroyed Aleppo and Damascus, the principal Mamluk cities
in Syria
In 1402 he captured the Ottoman sultan in battle, and then turned his attention westward
He was preparing to march on China when he fell ill and died in 1405
After his death, his sons carved the empire into independents regional kingdoms
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(His empire in general): Timur’s empire institutions were largely modeled on the Ilkhan mix of
Persian civil administration and Turkish-Mongol military organization
His policies favoured settled farmers and urban populations over pastoral nomads
He was determined to make Samarkand a grand imperial capital.
He forcibly relocated artists, craftsmen, scholars, and clerics from many regions and put
them into service in Samarkand
Samarkand: A city most noted for its central position on the Silk Road between China and the West,
and for being an Islamic centre for scholarly study
It was the Sogdian capital and flourished as a crossroads for merchant caravans
Teutonic Knights: A military order based on the Templar model (Templar knights) formed to end to
the poor and infirm among the pilgrims to the Holy Hand
The Teutonic military order gained renewed life after the failure of the Crusades
In the late 1220s a Polish duke recruited members of the Teutonic order to carry out a
crusade against his rivals among the pagan lords of Prussia. The popes claimed sovereign
authority over Prussia and delegated the Teutonic order to rule the region on their behalf.
In 1309 the Teutonic Knights relocated to Prussia and focused solely on building up their
own territorial state in the Baltic region
The order promoted Christianity through books, libraries and schools in the German
vernacular
In the end, the Teutonic order was a victim to its own success. Once the order completed its
mission of implanting Christianity through conquest, colonization, and conversion of pagans,
the Knights no longer had a cause to serve. In part it was through the marriage of the
Lithuanian king and the Polish queen in 1386, which encouraged Lithuanians to convert to
Christianity. This removed the last validation for the Teutonic order’s holy war against
paganism
By the early 16th century the order had ceased to function as a sovereign state
Sahel: Is the ecoclimatic and biogeographic zone of transition in Africa between the Sahara desert
to the north and the Sudanian Savanna to the South. It stretches across the southernmost extent of
Northern Africa between the Atlantic Ocean and the Red Sea
The Sahel belt of grasslands spans the southern rim of the Sahara from the Atlantic to Indian
Ocean
Berbers: Are the ethnicity indigenous to North Africa west of the Nile Valley. Historically they spoke
Berber languages, which together form the "Berber branch" of the Afro-Asiatic language family. The
Berber identity is usually wider than language & ethnicity and encompasses the entire history and
geography of North Africa
Mansa Musa: The Mali monarch Mansa Musa (r. 1312–1337)
He caused a great sensation when he visited Cairo on his pilgrimage to Mecca in 1325
The visit provided evidence of both the power and wealth of Mali and the increasing cultural
connections between West Africa and the rest of the Muslim world
Musa spent so much gold during a stop in Cairo that his visit became legend
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Document Summary

Paiza: is a tablet of authority for the mongol officials and envoys. It enabled the mongol nobles and officials to demand goods and services from civilian populations. The mongols established a comprehensive network of post stations to maintain communications with their armies. Only those with proper authorization, in the form of metal or wooden paiza tablets, were allowed use of the lodgings, supplies, and horses provided at these post stations. The mongolian inscription on this silver paiza reads, by the power of the. Eternal heaven, may the name of mongke khan be sacred. He who does not honour it shall perish and die. The term is used to describe the eased communication and commerce the unified administration helped to create, and the period of relative peace that followed the mongols" vast conquests. The conquests of genghis khan and his successors effectively connected the eastern world with the western world, ruling a territory from southeast asia to eastern europe.

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