HIS107 Final Exam Notes.docx

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Published on 22 Apr 2012
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Chapter 14-Tokugawa Japan
1600: Battle of Sekigahara
o Ieyasu wins battle
Assumes title of shogunate in 1603
Tokugawa Period (Edo Period) 1600-1868
o Edo becomes de facto political center of Japan
1605: Ieyasu retires as shogun and puts his son Hidetada in the office
o This way, his son will have been on the throne for several years when he dies, and there
will be no competition for succession after his death
1614: Ieyasu launches attack on Hideyori, but truce declared
o Hideyori eventually commits suicide
Controlling daimyo (warlords)
o Laws governing the military households
Can’t build any new castles or make repairs
Cannot marry without permission from shogun; stopping alliances through
marriage
o Sankin kotai: alternate attendance
System where daimyo were obliged to spend every other year living in
attendance in the capital of Edo (now Tokyo)
Wife and children have to stay in Edo all the time
Makes it very hard to stage a disruption, plus wife and children are held
“hostage” in case you try to go against shogunate
Cost of the alternate attendance: 20% of expenditures applied to travel
costs and maintaining wife and children in Edo is very expensive (since
there are the wives and children of all the warlords, there is a lot of
competition for more luxurious things)
o This effectively keeps the warlords poor enough to keep them
from staging a disruption
Two classes of warlords:
o Fudai daimyo; associated with Tokugawa clan for generations, considered more
trustworthy
o Tozama daimyo; warlords subdued in recent years
Thus, Fudai keep an eye on Tozama by having their lands surrounding the latter’s
About equal amounts of Fudai and Tozama in late 1600s
Shogun owns about 20% of the land, rest of the land was owned by warlords
Warlords could do whatever they wanted in their domain (had local autonomy)
o Central government did not care about day to day life of peasants
o Only thing shogun cared about: if warlord treated peasant too harshly and they
revolted, shogun would take away the land (thus, daimyo had to be very careful)
Incentive not to be too harsh on peasants and have too harsh criminal codes
Warlords’ domains called han
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Isolation Policy (1633-39)
Adopted by the Tokugawa shogunate through a series of edicts issued from 1633-39
Felt that access to foreign tech and wealth could lead to instability, so stopped any interaction
with foreigners
o Japanese ships forbidden to leave for foreign countries
o No Japanese permitted to go abroad
o If any Japanese returns from overseas, he must be put to death
o Banning of Christianity; to not have split allegiance towards authority, not any particular
problem with Christianity itself
o Missionaries supposed to leave the country
Many Christians and converts in Japan killed by the shogun
o Limited amount of trade with the Chinese
Shogunate prevents warlords from trading because he wants to keep them from
becoming too wealthy
Only the Dutch allowed to come once a year for limited trade
o Only western country to continue trade
o Reason: Dutch were Protestant
Shimabara Rebellion: 1637
o Near Nagasaki
Causes the shogun to really turn against Christianity
Rebellion about famine, but since the peasants were Christians, Christianity was associated as
the cause of the rebellion
China: Rites Controversy in Qing Dynasty also due to divided loyalty between Pope and
Emperor
Restrictions on guns
If anyone wanted to have one made, very long process that required approval from the shogun
Thus, gun technology did not advance in Japan
4 class divisions of Tokugawa
o Samurai
o Farmers
o Artisans
o Merchants
o At the bottom, outcasts do things that are traditionally caused to be “polluting” ex.
butchers, those who execute criminals…
No social mobility
o Successive generations cannot work their way up or down the system
Keeps the samurai loyal because their only source of income are the daimyo
Neo-Confucianism in Tokugawa Japan
Continuation of Chinese tradition of five relationships
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o Top class: samurai, 6-7%
o Regulations for daimyo
Must learn literature, arms, archery, horsemanship
Moderation in drinking and parties (classic Confucianism)
Wear clothing and act according to your rank
Yamaga Soko (Confucian scholar)
o 250 years of peace in Tokugawa Japan due to effective policies; thus, what is the need
for samurai?
Especially since the samurai do nothing productive to earn their own living,
unlike merchants, farmers or artisans
o Yamaga’s answer: bushido (the way of the warrior)
Reflecting on his station in life, being loyal to his master is the samurai’s purpose
(showing how to be a good Confucian person)
Another function of the samurai is to ensure that the other 3 classes are
participating in moral behaviour
Thus, loyalty for loyalty’s sake developed during this period because the samurai really needed
a reason to exist during this time of peace
The Ako Affair
o Imperial court sends envoys bearing New Year’s greetings to shogun in Edo
o Warlord Asano, lord of Ako domain, picked to oversee the ceremony (as a different
warlord was every year)
Asks Kira Yoshinaka, who was the expert in court ceremonies
o However, small mishap during ceremony, results in Asano wounding Kira in a fight
Act of drawing a sword in Edo castle was illegal, and Asano has to commit suicide
and his domains are confiscated by the shogunate
Asano’s samurai become masterless
o 2 years later, these 47 take revenge and kill Kira
o After, they willingly give themselves up to the shogunate
Problem: samurai so loyal to their masters that it might be harmful to the emperors, since they
were willing to break the law in order to be loyal
o Ako Affair one of the few examples of loyalty for loyalty’s sake
Second class: farmers
80% of the population
Tax rate: 40-50%
However, warlords did not press them too much so that they would not rebel
By 1720, no more land left in Japan to cultivate
o All arable lands had already been taken over by people
From 1700 until the end of the Tokugawa period, population levels off
o Contrast to Qing China, which kept growing to the point that negative effects of
population growth were evident
o Japan’s population between 1721 and 1846 remained the same, China’s population
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Document Summary

Tokugawa period (edo period) 1600-1868: edo becomes de facto political center of japan. 1614: ieyasu launches attack on hideyori, but truce declared: hideyori eventually commits suicide. Controlling daimyo (warlords: laws governing the military households. Can"t build any new castles or make repairs. Cannot marry without permission from shogun; stopping alliances through marriage: sankin kotai: alternate attendance. System where daimyo were obliged to spend every other year living in attendance in the capital of edo (now tokyo) Wife and children have to stay in edo all the time. Makes it very hard to stage a disruption, plus wife and children are held. Hostage in case you try to go against shogunate. Two classes of warlords: fudai daimyo; associated with tokugawa clan for generations, considered more trustworthy, tozama daimyo; warlords subdued in recent years. Thus, fudai keep an eye on tozama by having their lands surrounding the latter"s. About equal amounts of fudai and tozama in late 1600s.

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