[HIS103Y1] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (12 pages long)

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HIS103Y1
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Wednesday, October 29, 2014
Lecture Oct. 29
Prussia’s Fight for Survival
-Leuthen: high odds win for Prussia, recovered Silesia and most importantly British
subsidies
-Four years after Leuthen from 1758-onwards there was a subsidy of 700,000 pounds
per year and organized the army of Observation - German mercenaries and
neutralized the french front
-Britain alleviated Frederick the Great’s burden of fighting Austria, France, Russia,
Saxony and Sweden
-Tsarista Elizabeth’s agenda was always the reduction of size and stature of prussia
into a small electoral prince; to that end Russia send its main army believed by the
Prussians to be clodhoppers
-Russian commander: Saltykov - believed in a defensive style of warfare and formed a
bond with his soldiers
-Saltykov invaded Prussia systematically and defeated a Prussian army at Zullichau
(Wedell = Prussian commander)
-Saltykov engaged Prussia’s main army, commanded by Frederick the Great, at
Kunersdorf
Kunersdorf was a killing ground, reduced mobility
Frederick the Great made a mistake by continuing with his oblique strategy and
picking the strongest Russian flank (he thought it was the weakest)
First advance was successful due to Russian shellshock but eventually Russian
resolve hardened and eventually the Russians regained lost ground (with help from
Austrian grenadiers) and the Prussian army retreated - Saltykov routed the
Prussian army
After the battle, Frederick the Great wrote: “my coat is riddled with musket balls,
I’ve had two horses killed underneath me” [our losses have been great I only have
3000 men from 48000 and everyone is running away] “I shall not survive this cruel
turn of fortune… I have no resources left… farewell forever!”
!1
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Wednesday, October 29, 2014
-after Kunersdorf what allowed Frederick the Great to survive was that the coalition
was not politically united
-Saltykov did not trust the Austrians, and so Saltykov sat on his laurels and marched
his armies back to Russia
-At Leignitz Frederick won a victory and another at Torgau, although Torgau was a
Pyrrhic victory and Prussia could not continue the war
-In 1761 Frederick was in despair: “every bundle of straw, every transport of recruits,
every consignment of money, all that reaches me is a favour on the part of my
enemies, or a proof of their negligence. As a matter of fact, they could take
everything. If fortune continues to treat me so harshly I shall undoubtedly succumb to
defeat. Only she [fortune] can deliver me from my present situation.”
several weeks after writing this Tsaritsa Elizabeth died and the driving force behind
the coalition died out because Tsar Peter III was a pro-Prussian monarch and
immediately Peter III sought out a peace treaty and even offered part of the
Russian army to fight for Prussia
but Peter III, due to this sudden realignment of foreign policy, caused a ripple in the
Russian nobility and this ripple led to Catherine the Great usurping Peter, who
broke the alliance with Prussia but did not have any desire to continue fighting.
-
The Fortunes of War
-July and October 1762 Frederick was free to concentrate on the Austrians and
Saxons and smashed them at battles during those two months
-After these triumphs Prussia looked to be the dominant power but could not because
Britain was not prepared to pay for an invasion of the Austrian heartland.
There was still a pro-Austrian sentiment in Britain
a balance and checked continent left Britain free to roam the seas of the world and
dominate global trade. Britain saw no national interest in the destruction of Austria
Britain had been successful in its colonial war against the French so Britain could
now concentrate on balancing the powers in Europe. So it withdrew its subsidies to
Prussia
!2
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Document Summary

Leuthen: high odds win for prussia, recovered silesia and most importantly british subsidies. Four years after leuthen from 1758-onwards there was a subsidy of 700,000 pounds per year and organized the army of observation - german mercenaries and neutralized the french front. Britain alleviated frederick the great"s burden of ghting austria, france, russia, Tsarista elizabeth"s agenda was always the reduction of size and stature of prussia into a small electoral prince; to that end russia send its main army believed by the. Russian commander: saltykov - believed in a defensive style of warfare and formed a bond with his soldiers. Saltykov invaded prussia systematically and defeated a prussian army at zullichau (wedell = prussian commander) Saltykov engaged prussia"s main army, commanded by frederick the great, at. Austrian grenadiers) and the prussian army retreated - saltykov routed the. Prussian army: after the battle, frederick the great wrote: my coat is riddled with musket balls,

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