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Alison Smith
Study Guide

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1. Balance of power as an instrument for peace (every time there was power in Europe, a balance of
power followed); international conflicts help with international order
Sovereign states, no big wars after Westphalia (relative peace)
The key is that they are not European wide wards
30 years war
Embassies were permanent in other countries. Was seen as a diplomatic move and was
commonplace after West.
A rebuff to the 30 years war which was waged to regain control from the Habsburg
hegemony. This was connected to sovereignty of countries which involved all the great
Osnabruck and Munster were the treaties referred to in the Peace.
Cardinal Richeleu was instrumental in these negotiations as well as Sweden
To increase communication
Convention and practice- Decorum in ending a long conflict (the 30 years war)
Conducting a conference to meet and produce peace- was the first main conference among the
Territorial results collective deliberations were `positive`
-powers realized that until the boundaries could be decided upon amicably they were going to be a
constant source of conflict between the powers
-these same conclusions can be seen in the peace of 1914
Solid geographic maps- frontiers and borders
-Until 1789 they were legally binding
Secularizing of nations- removal of religion
-was no longer the primary source of conflict
-countries could accept to a certain extent a different ideology
Security was held in maintaining an equality between all the states and creating a functioning
international order. No longer a bid for world domination.

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Congress of Vienna
Powers were attempting to recover after the surge of the Napoleonic Era- Especially Russia.
The previous balance of power had be founded on ignorance and the power and potential of
an individual powers taking advantage of alliance formations and industrial technological
development- France had taken advantage of this and destroyed the illusions felt surrounding
this by the other powers.
Lasting peace, nothing until Crimean war
Long period of lasting power
Balance of power after periods of huge conflict
Planned + intentional planning of international order
Challenge was to build international order to accommodate diverse political ideals
This was a great challenge: military revolution
Great challenge because of the secret revealed to all statesmen
The 18th century balance of power was founded on ignorance, psychological barriers
France shattered these: French revolution
Congress of Vienna strived for a working balance of power
Ignorance of potential of great powers
Frances military revolution uncovered that the balance of power could be changed by
mobilization of and individual states resources to harness balance of power + supreme rule
over Europe
Castlereagh thought congress of Vienna was for practical purposes
Security + survival was purpose of states!!
Collective security (not individual)
The congress system would banish war, was very successful!!! **
Patterns of peacemaking: territory settlements frontiers and their borders
Creation of United Kingdom of low countries
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