Exam essay questions
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1. Balance of power as an instrument for peace (every time there was power in Europe, a balance of
power followed); international conflicts help with international order
−Sovereign states, no big wars after Westphalia (relative peace)
−The key is that they are not European wide wards
−30 years war
−Embassies were permanent in other countries. Was seen as a diplomatic move and was
commonplace after West.
−A rebuff to the 30 years war which was waged to regain control from the Habsburg
hegemony. This was connected to sovereignty of countries which involved all the great
−Osnabruck and Munster were the treaties referred to in the Peace.
−Cardinal Richeleu was instrumental in these negotiations as well as Sweden
−To increase communication
−Convention and practice- Decorum in ending a long conflict (the 30 years war)
•Conducting a conference to meet and produce peace- was the first main conference among the
•Territorial results collective deliberations were `positive`
-powers realized that until the boundaries could be decided upon amicably they were going to be a
constant source of conflict between the powers
-these same conclusions can be seen in the peace of 1914
•Solid geographic maps- frontiers and borders
-Until 1789 they were legally binding
•Secularizing of nations- removal of religion
-was no longer the primary source of conflict
-countries could accept to a certain extent a different ideology
Security was held in maintaining an equality between all the states and creating a functioning
international order. No longer a bid for world domination.
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•Congress of Vienna
−Powers were attempting to recover after the surge of the Napoleonic Era- Especially Russia.
−The previous balance of power had be founded on ignorance and the power and potential of
an individual powers taking advantage of alliance formations and industrial technological
development- France had taken advantage of this and destroyed the illusions felt surrounding
this by the other powers.
−Lasting peace, nothing until Crimean war
−Long period of lasting power
−Balance of power after periods of huge conflict
−Planned + intentional planning of international order
−Challenge was to build international order to accommodate diverse political ideals
−This was a great challenge: military revolution
−Great challenge because of the secret revealed to all statesmen
−The 18th century balance of power was founded on ignorance, psychological barriers
−France shattered these: French revolution
−Congress of Vienna strived for a working balance of power
−Ignorance of potential of great powers
−France’s military revolution uncovered that the balance of power could be changed by
mobilization of and individual states resources to harness balance of power + supreme rule
−Castlereagh thought congress of Vienna was for practical purposes
−Security + survival was purpose of states!!
−Collective security (not individual)
−The congress system would banish war, was very successful!!! **
−Patterns of peacemaking: territory settlements frontiers and their borders
−Creation of United Kingdom of low countries
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