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Tutorial readings notes: Wars of Frederick the Great, Britain, Hanover, Rise of Prussia

Course Code
Alison Smith

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What was the impact of the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle on international relations?
Why did Anglo-Austrian relationship fall apart?
What factors contributed to the growth of the Austro-French rapprochement?
What does Horn mean by the statement: the treaty [i.e. Treaty of Versailles] was
based on a misunderstanding between the contracting parties?
Was there indeed a diplomatic revolution in the 1750s?
The addition of Russia and Prussia as great powers destabilized the international
order of peace, added more players, more complicated treaties + alliances
Harder to balance and maintain the relations between countries
Austria number 1 foreign policy – obtain Silesia
France number 1 foreign policy: colonial war was harming commercial trade
Britain and Austria grand alliance used against French
1 7 5 0 s Austria exercising mo d erate influenc e ov er Russias diplomatic
Franc es stren g th d e clined
Kaunitz h o p ed to improv e Franco Austrian relatio n s
Holl an ds p o tenti al as ally to Austria went d own
Franc e n atural enemies wit h Brit ain
This affe cted Austria
Only as lo ng as Habsb urg-b o urb o n rivalry remained alive
Brit ain did n o t think Austrian co n n e c tion was v aluable
Austro French formal allianc e wo uld stren g then Habsb u rg empires po sition
Vien n e h o n est brok er b etwe e n Paris an d Lon d o n
Austria wo uld nt b e involved in Anglo French co nflicts ov er trade an d colonies

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Kaunitz wanted diplomatic union with France
French were reluctant, did not want to resign position at Versailles
English duke of Newcastle wanted to revitalize Anglo Austrian relations
Kaunitz gave t he British false hope
He tested Newcastles willingness to participate with Austria and Russia in
anti-Prussian coalition
Playing both sides of t he field, also convincing Versailles
French govt did not want colonial war with India
Conflict in the north American territories between England and France
Severing of Anglo Hanoverian relations was not a feasible option as long as
Hanoverian monarchs ruled England
Britains intention was to deter Prussia by an agreement with Russia
Anglo Russian relations historically cordial
Russia has conflict with France in the past
Russian govt needed money and were ready to do w.e Britain said
Hanoverian governing council recom m ended Britain pursue improved
relations with Austria and subsidy treaty with Russia
British cabinet accepted
Newcastles goal of diplomacy was to de ter Prussian threats to Hanover not
to com mit to Englands financial and military resources to general war in
central Europe
Kaunitz requested British adherence to Russo Austrian treaty common
action against Prussian at tack
Britain wanted to use Russias resources to their advantage
Britain wasnt one of the major powers like France Austria and Prussia
Could not compete, saw Russia as potential source of expeditionary forces
Austrias support for Russia limited
Kaunitz wanted to break Prussias power
Frederick tried to maintain stable relations with Britain

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Russia very hostile towards Prussia
Prussia had good relationship with France
Encouraged France to consider Prussia a mediator
Frederick wanted to neutralize Germany in the war
Newcastle now wanted agreement with Prussia
Britain could fight war as strong power
Hanovers security assured
Newcastle realize agree ment with Prussia would not be free or cheap but
would have positive repercussions on t he country
Newcastle saw no im mediate reason to choose between Prussia and Russia
He thought England could keep both powers content with their
Opened negotiations with Prussia
This would be much cheaper than going to war in Europe
Frederick wanted English money and feared English control
Reluctant without knowing outcome of Anglo Russian negotiation
Also did not want to risk breach with France
France wanted to maintain peace in t he continent
Kaunitz wanted all of Europe t o wage war on Prussia
Prussia Britain sign treaty
Prussia had abandoned France and betrayed them
Britain waging war on France and Prussia going against France
French council did not renew the Franco Prussian alliance
Versailles began to consider Austrian offers
French govt offended by Frederick but not did not want Prussia destroyed
Austria did not guarantee neutrality in Anglo French war
France backed away from traditional German allies
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