HIS103Y1- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 19 pages long!)

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4 Oct 2017
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UTSG
HIS103Y1
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Lecture 1 (September 11, 2017):
States are a historical idea
Sovereign
o No higher authority than the sovereign
o UN cannot tell states what to do
War is a conscious decision of states and their leaders
War is the continuation of politics (policy) by other means
o War is not a separate state of being separate from peace
o One of the many actions states pursue to achieve their goals
o Purposeful decision
For a state to get what it wants, it pursues a strategy
o The coordination of means with ends
o Of matching what you have with what you want to achieve and doing it with the
tools you have available
o State has a strategy dependent on its leaders and what the leaders have available
o Strategies require adaptation
Different from making a plan
Interaction between decisions (strategies)
Prussian
o No plan survives contact with the enemy
Eisenhower
o In preparing for battles, I have always found that plans are useless, but planning is
indispensable
o Planned the attack on D-day (June 6, 1944)/Operation Overlord
o There are several different outcomes from strategies and we have to think about
why some were successful and some were not
Strategies change and then fail because the enemy’s strategy is not taken into account
o There is not only one policy at play
o In any conflict, all sides have strategies and goals
o wars are launched for specific reasons, but then they can take a life of their own
and result in something entirely different than what it was meant to achieve
Britain’s success as an empire when its so small
o Geography
The safety that comes from being an island
o Incredible sea-faring skills
Powerful navy
o Bought armies and allies, colonial troops
o Why do they have so much money?
Establishment of parliament system in the 1600s
The ability to tax its citizens and borrowing large sums of money
Wars of religion, glory, empire
o Catholics and protestants
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Wars are launched thinking about what may happen in the future and their current
position
o A war now may be better than a war later
Wars of revolution
o Civil war
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