Crimean war, 1853-56
What diff about this war is that the British and French also fought in this war?
Palersto e hae o eteral allies ad o perpetual eeies. Our iterests are eteral ad
perpetual ad it is our iterests e o to follo. I.e. what should drive British policy is British
interests. so the allies change with interests in mind.
In France, rev. failed to change the map. A new emperor is also there. the idea of nationalism
ore tha lieralis shapes the 9’s. hat did ap. Wish to ahiee? Profoud doesti
changes- industrial rev. he also changed Paris to what we see it today. His interests however lay
in foreign policy. His ultimate goal was to restore prestige in France. To make France the
greatest power in Europe. And subsidiary and connected was to break the holy alliance and
reintroduce policies of 1815.
But France has lived with post 1815 order for 30 years now. So why change it? The principles of
the post nap. Wars were made against France. Perpetual memory of a peace made against
France and it limited and possibility of French expansion in Europe. Nap was also convinced that
stability in Europe o’t be there till national goals were achieved.
For Austria (several diff states), the nationalities problem was huge. But for France there was a
lot more consistency in language and culture of states. overall nationality idea would only
Nap III’s suessio as hapered by 1815, because nap. Bonaparte was not allowed to get on
thrown again. Russians in fact failed to recognize nap bon.
How can nap undo the organizational system currently? Who and what can he target?
Target for nap iii IS RUSSIA. Russia was the natural target because it seemed that Russia was the
upholder of 1815 policies. They were the strongest in the holy alliance. There was an image of
Russia was a powerful and stable state.
But in reality, power in Russia was eroding. But no one saw that.
Nap goals was to target Russia, drive w edge in holy alliance and humiliate Russia. Not to
huiliate ut to fore Russia heir. The uttos he’ll press are hol plaes i Bethlehem and
Jerusalem. Imp Catholic regions in the ottoman empire. Imp place not only for roman Catholics
but also orthodox Catholics. By 1853 it was orthodox monks who literally and symbolically held
the keys to these holy places. Nap will insist that the ottomans hand over the keys to the roman
Why this button? Nap hoped to split the catholic Austrians from orthodox Russian and to tempt
the Russians and tsar who held orthodox faith to do something foolish. And this does happen.
Tsar is disappointed in lost in prestige and falls in naps trap. Tsar sends a diplomat to the
ottoman empire; first to get the keys back and second to confirm the ottomans that Russia had
the right to protect orthodox. The tsar took this movie because he thought that on any
diplomatic situation, they could bank on Austrian support. But this plan backfires. It provokes a
crises and worries British and Austrians. Both are concerned about Russian movt. In ottoman
empire. They see the mission as Russians attempt to spread empire. The Russians still seek to
press turkey and occupy Moldavia and Mawakee. Russian occupies this ottoman territory until
the ottomans agree to their demands. Britain and Austria worried. Austria more because the
region Russia wants leads to the river Danube, imp for Austrian trades.