HIS103Y1- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 47 pages long!)

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30 Nov 2017

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Crimean war, 1853-56
What diff about this war is that the British and French also fought in this war?
Palersto e hae o eteral allies ad o perpetual eeies. Our iterests are eteral ad
perpetual ad it is our iterests e o to follo. I.e. what should drive British policy is British
interests. so the allies change with interests in mind.
In France, rev. failed to change the map. A new emperor is also there. the idea of nationalism
ore tha lieralis shapes the 9’s. hat did ap. Wish to ahiee? Profoud doesti
changes- industrial rev. he also changed Paris to what we see it today. His interests however lay
in foreign policy. His ultimate goal was to restore prestige in France. To make France the
greatest power in Europe. And subsidiary and connected was to break the holy alliance and
reintroduce policies of 1815.
But France has lived with post 1815 order for 30 years now. So why change it? The principles of
the post nap. Wars were made against France. Perpetual memory of a peace made against
France and it limited and possibility of French expansion in Europe. Nap was also convinced that
stability in Europe o’t be there till national goals were achieved.
For Austria (several diff states), the nationalities problem was huge. But for France there was a
lot more consistency in language and culture of states. overall nationality idea would only
Nap III’s suessio as hapered by 1815, because nap. Bonaparte was not allowed to get on
thrown again. Russians in fact failed to recognize nap bon.
How can nap undo the organizational system currently? Who and what can he target?
Target for nap iii IS RUSSIA. Russia was the natural target because it seemed that Russia was the
upholder of 1815 policies. They were the strongest in the holy alliance. There was an image of
Russia was a powerful and stable state.
But in reality, power in Russia was eroding. But no one saw that.
Nap goals was to target Russia, drive w edge in holy alliance and humiliate Russia. Not to
huiliate ut to fore Russia heir. The uttos he’ll press are hol plaes i Bethlehem and
Jerusalem. Imp Catholic regions in the ottoman empire. Imp place not only for roman Catholics
but also orthodox Catholics. By 1853 it was orthodox monks who literally and symbolically held
the keys to these holy places. Nap will insist that the ottomans hand over the keys to the roman
catholic monks.
Why this button? Nap hoped to split the catholic Austrians from orthodox Russian and to tempt
the Russians and tsar who held orthodox faith to do something foolish. And this does happen.
Tsar is disappointed in lost in prestige and falls in naps trap. Tsar sends a diplomat to the
ottoman empire; first to get the keys back and second to confirm the ottomans that Russia had
the right to protect orthodox. The tsar took this movie because he thought that on any
diplomatic situation, they could bank on Austrian support. But this plan backfires. It provokes a
crises and worries British and Austrians. Both are concerned about Russian movt. In ottoman
empire. They see the mission as Russians attempt to spread empire. The Russians still seek to
press turkey and occupy Moldavia and Mawakee. Russian occupies this ottoman territory until
the ottomans agree to their demands. Britain and Austria worried. Austria more because the
region Russia wants leads to the river Danube, imp for Austrian trades.
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Still no war between great powers and still again a conference takes place. What’s diff is that
the do’t disuss atters of other states (other than great powers), rather they discuss
situation between 2 powers, France and Russia. There is no diplomatic solution from the
conference. Both France and Russia and determined on their desires.
Both send navy to ottoman empire. Nap has it all figured out. If Britain, with its huge ass navy
fights Russia, French will willingly tag along. If British do not send their navy, France will rise as
the only power that is willing to fight for the ottomans against Russia. Rise in their prestige.
He’s put himself in a very fortunate position.
Russia turns to Prussia and seek and alliance with them against France. Russia also tries to form
agreements with Austria that they will return the Danube once the Turks give them the land.
But there are no takers. Why? Prussia does not want to be at the brunt of a showdown with
Russia and Austria’s are’t oied that Russia ill reall retur Danube.
This creates a diplomatic deadlock in Europe.
This is broken by a declaration of war by the ottomans who declare war on Russia. The Russians
very quickly destroy ottoman naval fleet.
But in the British and French press is described as a massacre. There’s increased war fever
against the tsar. The British and French govt are not entirely for war nor against. They
give Russia and ultimatum. If the Russians attack Ottoman gain, Britain and war will
declare war. Russia takes this as confirmation that Britain and France will fight.
Russia goes to Austria and Prussia for alliance gain, thinking it might cause Britain and France to
back off. But both disagreed. To Austria and Prussia, the holy alliance was about Russia
protecting them and not the other way around.
This refusal ultimately leads to the collapse of holy alliance. From now on, these three states
will be guiding foreign policy with independent interests and not conservative consideration of
others. It was the holy alliance that had prevented eastern and central Europe from revolution.
It was also key for upholding 1815 policies not only against France but also management of
British and French choose Russian invasion in Mawakee and Moldavia as reason for war. war
Between 50-6K British ad Freh troops head to Criea to fight i Russia. Teso’s poe
ade this ar iortal ad etreel faous. But there atuall as’t athig great aout
it. It lasted 2 years with only 2 periods of 3-4 months of fighting. It was mainly a period of
Both sides tried to get Austria to joi ad reak the deadlok. But the do’t at to fight. The
fear Hungarians would take adv.
Florence nightingale was a famous nurse during this war. more people actually died of disease
than combat.
British and French fleets start attacking Russia proper, at least Russian coast.
Ultimately the Russians will lose their naval base in sevepool and they are concerned about
losing Cronsdant.
They then ask for peace.
The Crimean war was more a farce and unnecessary.
Only when we see it in terms of IR we see its significance. A turning point in European IR.
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