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HIS241H1- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 46 pages long!)


Department
History
Course Code
HIS241H1
Professor
Anthony Cantor
Study Guide
Midterm

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UTSG
HIS241H1
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Enlightenment and the French Revolution: Part 1 Sept. 20, 2016
Root Causes
long term
o change in the state of European mind caused ppl to pay attention to what shaped their way of life
o erosion of absolutist system by Enlightenment and growing educational levels
o years of subduing public opinion/public voice and thus radicalization of all social groups
o relatively weak church and obsolete law and legal system only privileged society was supported by it
o emerging middle class that was unrepresented and dissatisfied b/c they were the 3rd estate
o mercantilism, guilds, tariffs, etc. became outdated as an economic system as capitalism emerged
o manorial dues to the church extracted directly rather than through a system of fixed rates and taxes
o nobility in servitude to the state and declining
o weak central power was unable to control the events Louis XVI did’t hae the resoures to eoe
totalitarian
o basically, everything sucked and no one was happy
short term
o system of class privilege everyone hated, sometimes even those who benefited from it
o acute financial crisis France was running huge debts, and imposing new taxes was proving difficult
o bad harvests and food price spike
o Louis XVI was incompetent he preferred to be something other than a king
Why France?
otrar to the other oarhies, Frae did’t adopt the Elighteed oarh odel and the king basically
had a horrible PR system
Elighteet’s etre as i Frae
France home to philosophers as well, so ppl would engage in public debate and be active in intellectual debate
France was a superpower at the time largest army, GDP, population, etc.
The Elighteet: Revolutio of Ideas
key aspects of Enlightenment:
o universe is rational and based on natural laws
o believe in reason
o everything can be explained by reason and natural laws
o empirical analytical method
o applied rather than theoretical knowledge should be used for the good of the ppl
o knowledge is power
o optimism and believe in progress
o above all, desire to change and improve the society
roots in Scientific Revolution
o Frais Bao, Ne Atlatis
o Rene Descartes and the systematic doubt and applied science
o Isaak Newton
Transformation in conditions of cultural prod. and reception
ourt ulture → priate sposorship and middle class consumers
relative economic boom in England and France while Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands declined
new channels of intellectual communication (salons, pamphlets, newspapers)
reading clubs, etc. middle and upper class could follow the new ideas (e.g. Rousseau) that assaulted traditional
society
academies of science
John Locke (1632-1704)
kind of started the entire problem
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elieed a hua eig as atural rights, ad go’t poer is there to protet those rights
o this = a contract betee huas ad the go’t
if go’t turs its ak o huas’ rights propert, liert, et., the itizes hae the right to reolutio
go’t should e liited  la
esp. important in England and the USA constitution built around these ideas
Charles Louis de Secondat (1689-1755)
“pirt of the Las – idea of the division of political power into three branches (judicial, administrative,
executive), hih reates a alae that’s augmented by law
Denis Diderot (1713 1784)
created the 1st encyclopedia (1751-1772)
believed that through the spread of knowledge, society could be fixed
o the more we know, the more involved we get
Francois-Marie Arouet/Voltaire (1694-1778)
made the Enlightenment popular
quintessential intellectual who defined that term wrote about basically everything, and in correspondence w/
monarchs and courts and such
Letters o Eglad 1 – freedom of intellectual thought, embracement of freedom of thought
main aims: intellectual freedom, religious tolerance, reason over superstition, freedom of intellectual exchange
went all over Europe pissed off the king of France, so he had to go to England, etc.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
believed that humans are inherently good, but society suppresses that
o only way to solve this is to engage w/ society
believed ppl should be free and equal to be truly free, ppl must be equal
nations bounded on dignity of common ppl rather than hierarchy
sovereignty of the ppl all source of power, change, law resides w/ ppl, and political power is just an expression
of that
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)
categorical imperative and Kantian ethics idea that o atter the irustaes or iterests, there’s a ertai
set of moral and ethic values that have to followed
Financial Crisis
ostat ar etee the iddle of the 1th . → iddle of the 1th ., all over the world
massive debt due to never-ending warfare consumed more than 50% of the state budget by 1789
o ost of this det due to iteratioal akers ad foreig go’ts
American Revolution last nail in the coffin France sent too much to the USA
only solution is tax reform
o uerous attepts  go’t to irease taes ad refor the sste 1, 1-1776)
o taxes were controlled on the local level king decreed tax reform, then this was sent to parliament, who
had the right to refuse tax reform
o resistance from:
aristocracy saw paying taxes as a peasant job
lower nobility often purchased estates and offices to avoid taxes, and felt betrayed
church largest landowner i Frae, ho did’t at to gie up its priileges
merchants and trades feared a threat to their businesses
lower urban strata simply had no money
peasants felt they already paid enough
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