HIS243H1 Study Guide - Final Guide: World Trade Organization, Toleration, Protestantism

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Published on 17 Feb 2013
School
UTSG
Department
History
Course
HIS243H1
Printing, Propaganda and Reformation (Oct. 7th- Oct. 12th)
Invention of Printing
o Invention
o Three things had to develop before
Paper
Ink
Type
Had a block and cut out image in reverse and transfer it to
paper, blocks would be wood
You could do many prints off one block of wood
Spreads to Europe 1250-1350, in china and euro for
artwork
Later it is seen as way to block print books, but expensive
and did not last long (blocks deteriorate)
Decided to use metal, indiv letters
Not trained as a printer, but as a metal worker (Johann
Guttenberg)
Metal opens up new problem, ink before had to be water based
But on metal it does not stick, need to find new ink
o From ink move on to painting, oil in their paints
o Guttenberg is able to reach across Europe to
painters and finds oil
Do not have paper, manuscripts either printed on parchment or
vellum
Animal skins
In order to get parchment must go out and slaughter sheep
so is costly
Chinese invent papyrus, later spreads to euro 12th or 13th
century via arabs in spain
o Not in great supply bc little demand
o Euro papers based on other fibers (hemp, linen)
o Savings 1/6th cost of previous option
o Books and audiences, and printers
o Cultural consequnces
Begins in 1450s in Mainz by Guttenberg
1395-1468
Developed thorough movable metal type
o How did books spread before hand?
Monks used to write books by hand, monasteries
If monasteries wanted new work, they would have ot find who
owned it and ask to borrow so able to copy
Inter library loan took months/ years
Sets the model up for how other books are produced
They took model of uni classroom, prof would sit in front and
read text while student copied book
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Oral transmission of knowledge
This is what book sellers used to do
Ideas traveled slowly, high illiteracy, costly
Printing revolutionizes this method
Guttenberg produces lots of bibles
In early beginnings of PP needed to have something that was desirable to market
o Mostly church texts
Bibles, books of the masses
o Magic stories
Knights
Romance
o As printing develops and more readership, diff things demanded
Expansion of printing and expansion of schools
o More textbooks available
GREATEST SUPPLY IS IN NRTHN ITALY, PARIS, COLOGNE
o ALL THESE MAJOR CENTERS EITHER HAVE CHURCH OR UNI
WITHIN
Aldus Manutius (on Terms pg)
Cultural effects of printing
o Rise of editing, comparative editions
Scholarships on texts
Never knew if text represented the original word of author
Polyglot- take text and put it in diff language (on same page)
People became fascinated with comparing diff meanings of a text
Printing- cultural consequnces-
o Comparative scholarship on classical texts
o Languages vernaculars (french, German, Italian, English, etc)
o Audiences grow, ideas spread (eg reformation)
o Authority= literacy
From oral to literate culture
o Censorship
Henry 8th of England, 1526
Francis I of France, 1521, 1535
Tries to get rid of press
Does not work
Index of prohibited books
1542, 1559
Effort on part of CC to control hearsay, religious dissent
Last till 1960s
Ideas spread to more people, causing movements
Censorship of religious ideas, so truth can remain in religion
Martin Luther
o Reformation becomes a mass movement bc of printing
o As writing spreads, literacy becomes a form of authority
To be illiterate is to have lost cultural authority
Notion tht authority comes with literacy and reading
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Renaissance Art (Oct. 12th Oct. 19th)
Painting
o Naturalism
o Linear perspective
o Classism
o Chiaroscuro
o Perspective landscapes
o Medieval backgrounds
Duccio- Maestra
Venice- S. Marco Mosiacs
Heavenly space
Lessons in truths of the faith
All falls apart in the renaissance
o Ghirolandio
Angel appears to Zacharias in the temple
Linear perspective
Classicism
o Roman temple, classical architecture
o Meant to accentuate action in the middle
o Public space
o Departing from original biblical text
o Action in a time, in a place in 3D
Naturalism
Depicted naturally
Look like they could walk and talk
Zach giving name John to son
Linear perspective
o Landscape
o Linear perspective
o Aerial perspective
Have to find ways to create perspective
Vanishing point, above most imp part of the
painting
Helps our eyes see this as a 3d
painting
Colors is front more intense than
colors in the background
Bronze and sculpture
o Back to bronze
o Free standing
o Naturalistic/ classical
o Contraposto
15th century Florentine who wants to be portrayed as a Roman
o Common of the time
Architecture
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Document Summary

Printing, propaganda and reformation (oct. 7th- oct. 12th) Invention of printing: invention, three things had to develop before. Had a block and cut out image in reverse and transfer it to paper, blocks would be wood. You could do many prints off one block of wood. Spreads to europe 1250-1350, in china and euro for artwork. Later it is seen as way to block print books, but expensive and did not last long (blocks deteriorate) Not trained as a printer, but as a metal worker (johann. Metal opens up new problem, ink before had to be water based. But on metal it does not stick, need to find new ink: from ink move on to painting, oil in their paints, guttenberg is able to reach across europe to painters and finds oil. Do not have paper, manuscripts either printed on parchment or vellum. In order to get parchment must go out and slaughter sheep so is costly.

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