HIS243 Exam Review Notes.docx

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Published on 17 Feb 2013
School
UTSG
Department
History
Course
HIS243H1
HIS243 Exam Review Notes
Social Structures in EME (Lectures sept.16th- sept. 28th)
In EME cities were vry crowded
o Little sanitation and social life
Smell cities before you could see them
Piles of human waste on streets, rules to how high they could be
1348- Black Death/ Bubonic Plague
o 35%
o 50%
o 75%
o Of pop death
o Said to be fleas on rats but not 100% sure
o Florence at time of BD had 140,000 inhabitants by end it had lost 2/3 of its
pop
Struggles through whole century
o London had 60,000- 70
Goes down half
Families collapse
o In diff parts of Europe plagues reoccur every decade
Constant population change
o In 1590s and 1630s new plagues
70 million before death, 50 million after
Takes 100 years to recover
o 14 or 15% of world population dies
o 1650- 75 million
o Most population lived at mediterrainean
o Northern population expands rapidly
Before focus on south, now its shifts to the north
Key centers of trade
Before it was Venice, now Antwerp and Amsterdam
Very few Europeans lived in cities
o 10%
o Europe is very rural
However by end of period all growth is now in the cities
o North fastest
o All pop growth comes from people moving in
o Dangerous place to live
Theft, plagues as cty is unhealthy
Most cities cannot generate growth internally
Come in die, come in die
o Young ppl (teens early 20s) as they were most mobile
Cities have young pop
Women tend to move more than men
Not like NA farms, most people continued to work if you were farming
o Lived in villages, and work plots in diff places around villages
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In villages, the church, may have more than one plot
Always traveling to diff plots
o Rural life marginal bc constantly growing pop but not enough land,
therefore you have to leave
o Low seed growth 1 to 3
o Always right on margin of starvation or in starvation bc every year crop
failure, drought, flood
Difficult to save things
Farmers cannot take risk bc they need to save
o Own diff types of land in diff ways
Free hold- owned property (bought, inherited)
Tenants- land is owned by person in manor house, and they are
persons tenants
Payments in crops, labor
Italy- 16th century share cropping- have some land by landlord
(land) and you divide labor and share
Davante is that there is no need for capital or seed,
livestock
o All needed is muscle
o The landlord shares the pain with you
o Spread rapidly bc works for both parties
o Any many people cannot afford capital it takes
o As BD rises ppl desperate for land
o 1350- good
After drops bc no workers, prices fall, wages rise
o 1450- expand again as well as agric
o More use of industrial crops- hemp, flax, mulberries
Silk worms eat mulberry leaves, and thus development of silk
Any areas that is going to expand needs trees for silk worms
Crisis of not enough food
o After 1560s new plague of starving ppl
o At this point food could not be shipped far (spoil)
o Indus crops could be shipped but not done
o Much of ppls diet is vegetable due to fact it is local
o By 16th century growing grains and exporting it
o Italy looks to Baltic and Spain for grain
o Cities try to control rural areas as source of food
Pass laws saying cannot sell grain outside of city
Provide premiums for farmers from away to sell food to their town
o No meat usually eaten, more eaten before than after
o Southern more vegs than Northern
Move directly to cities or shift around before
o Not welcome bc another mouth to feed
If famine hits, city council pass law that everyone who is recent
has to leave
Sometimes as far as 10 yrs
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In 16th century ppl forced out, increase in beggars
o Tension between rural and city
o City is seen as safe, rural as dangerous
Social Structures in EME
Bologna has symbol of two towers
Campanilismo- bell towers
o Convents, monasteries
o Other towers are family towers
Defense, statement
Towers packed with supplies and during civi war take
family and wait inside
o When cities start changing, ppl are ordered to bring down their towers
Some are destroyed
Siena- church vs state powers
Antwerp- big cathedral tower
o Mostly church
People had string attachment to their cities, even though 10% lived in cities
o Saints days, baquets, aerial views of cities put on walls
o Homogenous everything jumbled together
o We tend to study urban not rural history
o Most of euro is rural, therefore cities stand out
Social settlements-
o Wealthy and poor live near
o Wealthy tend to build houses in the middle of the city
o Bologna- rich lived in middle, poor lived on outside of the city
Even poorer ppl lived on the outside of the city walls
By 15th century relig shrines appearing on outside of city walls
If shrines on inside of walls assumed you were protected
internally
Cathedral is where the bishop resides- voice of pope
Civic church is what the civil council pays for, not direct from
rome
CITIES LIKE BOLOGNA BUILT THEIR QUARTERS
AROUND POLITICS, AND CITY SQUARE WAS WHERE
THEY ALL GATHERED TOEGTHER
To hold power must control city square
Usually ppl loyal to the city as well as their quarter
Intense competition among districts
o Venice- made up of 60 little islands
Maritime city
Divided into 6th
Each had 6th had diff islands
Each island had own identity, as well as tower
Each considers itself indiv within whole
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Document Summary

Social structures in eme (lectures sept. 16th- sept. 28th) In eme cities were vry crowded: little sanitation and social life. Smell cities before you could see them. Piles of human waste on streets, rules to how high they could be. Struggles through whole century: london had 60,000- 70. Families collapse: in diff parts of europe plagues reoccur every decade. Constant population change: in 1590s and 1630s new plagues. 70 million before death, 50 million after. Takes 100 years to recover: 14 or 15% of world population dies, 1650- 75 million, most population lived at mediterrainean, northern population expands rapidly. Before focus on south, now its shifts to the north. Before it was venice, now antwerp and amsterdam. Very few europeans lived in cities: 10, europe is very rural. However by end of period all growth is now in the cities: north fastest, all pop growth comes from people moving in, dangerous place to live.

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