Laura Cereta: 1469 – 1499, was a renaissance humanist and feminist.
Her letters were directed at other intellectuals. Her letters defended
women’s right to education and fought the oppression of married
women. Her letters laid the groundwork for Feminism of the
Enlightenment. Moreover, her letters discussed war, death, fate,
chance and malice. Unlike most women of her time, Cereta was able to
partake in letter writing because she had social contacts to participate.
Duke Cosimo I: 1537- 1574. Comes into power after all line of Cosimo
and Lorenzo is dead. He was brought in from the outside of the main
family line; they went into farm side to pick him up. He is 17 at the
time and wasn’t married, died in 1574. He was military leader, moved
his family into city hall and turns it into a palace, but not large enough
so moves to a larger palace. He decided to play the power. Then plays
marriage politics. He marries Elenora, daughter of high Spanish noble,
who has direct time with the Roman Emperor. Trying to consolidate his
title. Did all this to get Medici family to be stronger in power. France
and Spain was the biggest people in power and they are constantly at
war and Medici family kept this going.
Catherine de Medici: Marries Henry II (A French Prince) and has
three sons; Francis II, Charles ninth and Henry the third. Catherine is
from the Medici family and marries into a French family, the house of
Valois. After the death of Henry II, she started to lead the house of
Valois. To her it wasn’t about territory it was about society, because
sociologically its important. She attempts to control the two houses of
the Valois, family of guises and family of Navarre. She brought
together edict of toleration in 1569 which is about not persecuting
members of a given religion for their religious practices and traditions.
Her actions were seen as desperate measures to keep the Valois
monarchy on the throne at all costs. Valois success depended on being
keen with house of Navarre. So, Catherine allows Marguerite to marry
Henry of Navarre (August 1572).
Aldus Manutius: 1450- 1515. Venetian printer, he’s Italian a
humanists in training. To be a printer means being dirty, demanding,
physically exhausting job, and its complex. He is a scholarly printer; he
went into printing as a career. He was headed to Venice, a lot of
people there, capital and trade. Goes into a three way partnership, one
of them edits the texts and he wanted to come up with different forms
of types. Italic writing was one of his inventions, took up smaller space,
it wasn’t just aesthetic, t was also an economic movement. He discards
footnotes because it takes up too much space. Got rid of commentaries
that took up most of the page. Third invention is paperback, octave
which folded to make 1/8 of a size. He was influential because he
improves printing because printing was extraordinarily expensive.
Mary Tudor: Was the Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553
until her death. She is remembered for her restoration of Roman
Catholicism after the short - lived Protestant reign of her brother. She
was educated in languages and was reasonably intelligent. 287 or so
Protestants were executed for religious treason in the Queen’s six-
year reign. However, the Queen’s policy did not destroy English
Protestantism as she had hoped, but earned her the unhappy title
“Bloody Mary”. Her six year reign was judged as a failure. Her
persecutions of Protestants and her unpopular marriage helped to
undermine the cause of Roman Catholicism in England. She had no
great successes in foreign policy, even having to surrender Calais to
the French. The port of Calais was the last English toehold on the
Continent after the close of the 100 years of war. Its loss in 1558 hurt
Sola Scriptura: “by scripture alone”. The doctrine that the Bible
contains all knowledge necessary for salvation and holiness. It
demands that only those doctrines are to be admitted or confessed
that are found directly within or indirectly by using valid logical
deduction or valid deductive reasoning from scripture. It was a
foundational doctrinal principle of the Protestant Reformation held by
the reformers and is a formal principle of Protestantism today. It is
believed to be self- authenticating, clear to the rational reader, its own
interpreter and sufficient of itself to be the final authority of Christian
Filippo Brunelleschi: Served an apprenticeship as a goldsmith but
departed from Florence upon losing the baptistery sculpture
competition to Lorenzo Ghiberti in 1401. Was one of the foremost
architects and engineers of the Italian Renaissance. He invented the
linear perspective and designed the dome of the Florence Cathedral.
Moreover, his accomplishments also included bronze artwork,
architecture, mathematics, engineering and a small contribution to
ship designing. He is considered the seminal figure of the Renaissance.
The Basilica of San Lorenzo, and Santo Spirito, bot were designed by
Brunelleschi and they are considered landmarks in Renaissance
Quintillian: A form of writing that emerged from Marcus Fabius
Quintilianus and was a Roman rhetorician from Hispania and he was
widely referred in medieveal schools of rhetoric and in Renaissance
writing. Valla, the most briliant of the humanists of the Italian
Renaissance preferred the Latin style of Quintilian to Cicero.
Laura cereta: 1469 1499, was a renaissance humanist and feminist. Her letters defended women"s right to education and fought the oppression of married women. Her letters laid the groundwork for feminism of the. Moreover, her letters discussed war, death, fate, chance and malice. Unlike most women of her time, cereta was able to partake in letter writing because she had social contacts to participate. Comes into power after all line of cosimo and lorenzo is dead. He was brought in from the outside of the main family line; they went into farm side to pick him up. He is 17 at the time and wasn"t married, died in 1574. He was military leader, moved his family into city hall and turns it into a palace, but not large enough so moves to a larger palace. He marries elenora, daughter of high spanish noble, who has direct time with the roman emperor.