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HIS243H1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Leonardo Bruni, Quintilian, Poggio Bracciolini

Course Code
Nicholas Terpstra
Study Guide

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HISTORY 243F- Fall 2011
1. Social Structures in Early Modern Europe
Cities and neighbourhoods
cities are a symbol of civil and religious patriotism: You feel
strongly about your city because you fell God feels strongly
about it
they are usually centralized around churches or shrines
cities are also divided politically, into quarters and sixths,
controlled by different families
People are patriotic to their own sections of the city as well
the city centre, which had all kinds of buildings, is considered a
neutral zone
If someone wanted to cease control of the city, they had to take
control of the city square
divided into sixths, divisions that were seen in religion and sports too
the two main families in Venice were the Castellini and the Niccolotti
Venice had vested interests in trade, not land
these were often centralized around religion
despite the divisions, the city would become unified at times, to show
solidarity so that God would bless them
Venice was a city of cohesion and division
cohesion: the marriage of the Doge to the sea - A procession would
start at St. Mark’s Square, leading to the sea, at which point the Doge
would throw a ring into the ocean, and say, “I marry you.”
Division: Bridge battles were a regular ritual - young men from
different families would get together to knock each other off of bridges;
these battles could often become bloody and always put the entire city
on edge
Built in the ancient Roman period
Followed the typical grid pattern with two main streets: Cardo and
1173-1175, walls of Florence built out and population expands
1284-1383, walls stretched out to accommodate growing population
Big population growth between 1284-1333
population reaches 120,000, one of the largest in Europe
a few decades later, Black Death (1348) sweeps through the
population, and the population stays low until the 1800s
Highways develop after walls torn down to sweep out disease
Medici build two fortresses to intimidate population rather than defend

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Florence was also a family of cohesion and division - the rituals may
have been a little different
Also a Roman city, with Cardo and Decumanus
Second walls built in the early 14th century
Had roughly the same population as Florence, which also collapsed
Bologna had cathedrals and watch towers related to different houses,
to assert dominance - the taller and larger the tower, the more power a
family seemed to have
oLoranium - Belgian city
No grid formation (not a Roman city)
Rural settlement from the Middle Ages
Core is more like a city, whereas the outer reaches are farmland
With religious changes in the 16th century, convents are built in the
farm land area
Black Death – 1348
oStarts in Italy and reaches Netherlands in 1349
o1/3 to 1/2 of the population killed
oMost cities take 150 years to recover from it
oFlorence, Bologna, etc. take longer because they are
unhealthy cities
oThese cities don’t see a growth in population – population
grows in areas that were previously sparse, such as England,
France, and Germany
oPopulation growth comes from migration
oNo natural growth in population due to poor food supply
Agricultural development
o1350-1450, there was a decline in European land for
cultivation, and after the plague, there were less people to
farm the land
odiet improves because there are less people to farm the land
o1450-1650, increase in population and the rise of industrial
crops, such as hemp and mulberries for textiles, leads to
development of unused land
oIncreased industrial development leads to food shortages in
1560s, because no one was farming for food, and diet
o1590s, there is a famine, so people search in the Baltics for
food, which causes an explosion in trade
oAt first, Europe represents 14-15% of the world’s population
oBy 1820s, 25% - most people lived in the Mediterranean area
oIn 1600s, Northern Europe had 50% of world’s population
and by 1650s, it was 75%

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oThe culture and economy goes from being heavily
Mediterranean to Northern European
o10% of Europe’s population lived in cities, with at least 5000
people to a city
oThe rest lived in rural areas with a population less than 5000
oBy the end of the period, people in their late teens to early
20s began moving to cities, with a large number of women,
for better opportunities
omost people dies young - by age 15, 50% of children would
have died
o20-30% of people die within 3 years
omost deaths were related to gastric-intestinal diseases, or
complications in the birthing process - 1 in 5 women die due
to birth related causes
oChildren of upper class citizens were sent to wet nurses to
get the women back into fertility as soon as possible
oafter 6 years of age, children were sent to schools or
ochildren of lower classes were put to work
o42% (male) and 34% (female) of servants were children from
the working or artisan pools
oThere were 3 levels to skilled craft work (baker, tailor, etc.):
apprentice (age 6-15), journeyman (age 15-early 20s), and
master (from mid 20s onwards)
omost craftsmen wouldn’t marry until they became masters -
and sometimes that would be a problem because in some
parts of Europe, you weren’t considered an adult until
ohigher status children were sent off to live with other families
in order to make connections
oconnections were built through guilds, unions, fraternities,
and confraternities, which lasted and supported the member
for life and his family after death
oMarriage for women was usually a matter for parental
othe richer and older a girl was, the more say a parent had in
the marriage
omarriages were about wealth, property and money
othe younger women marry the better - a widow in her 20s
can easily get remarries, but not when she hits her 30s or
oIn Northern Europe, the marriages are more common-law in
nature, with the property being shared
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