Full Notes

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Published on 19 Dec 2011
School
UTSG
Department
History
Course
HIS243H1
Early Modern Europe
1450-1648
-This was the period where Europe began to arise as the centre of civilization
-Europe underwent an intellectual, political, cultural, and economic change
-It went on a path of world dominance
-Europeans began to think of the world as a possession, something to be owned
-At the end of the 13th to the 14th century, the city of Florence made great expansions
in size
-Florence grew from a minor city to a population of 100,000 which would then be
decimated by the bubonic plague
-The Black Death: 1348, beginning in Italy, in Scotland by 1349
-It killed between 1/2 and 2/3 of Europe’s populace
-Europe went from ~75m to ~50m
-Cities were affected by plague worse than in the countryside
-Cities were generally unhealthy places to live in
-Cities grew, but they did not replenish their own population, but rather, people coming
to them from rural areas
-When the population begins to grow again, they grew in areas that were more sparsely
populated prior to the Black Death
-The bulk of the population lived in the South during the Middle Ages and early
Renaissance, by 1600 the North was 50% of the population, by 1700 75%
-A “city” was somewhere with more than 5,000 people, only 10% of people lived in
cities
-90% of people lived in places with less than 5,000 people
-Oddly, a disproportionate number of women were moving to cities
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-What they were living was the perceived limited life in rural areas
-One did not own or live on the farm
-Rather, one owned or rented and tilled it
-They would live in a small village with a lord and a church
-There was a very small seed to crop ratio, there was often very little to spare
-This was part of the reason cities did not grow, there was often just not enough food
-City governments were often worried about this issue, if there was not enough food the
government will fall
-Cities would order the farmers what and where they could grow and where they could
sell it
-People rarely owned crops, but rather rented and were tenants
-Sharecropping was also quite common in Italy
-1350-1450: saw a decline of agricultural output
-There was a decline in land that was cultivated due to the Black Death
-The population in Europe had been growing so much they were bringing in far flung
areas to be cultivated, and so there was much less demand from the cities
-Paradoxically, diet improved for most of the people who were left alive
-Wages also began to rise due to the demand for labour
-1450-1650 saw improvements, lands which had been left to nature became cultivated
again
-This saw the rise of industrial crops, things related to textiles such hemp (awh ye), flax,
and mulberries
-1590s saw a series of food shortages across Europe
-This saw for the first time international food shipping
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-A city was not just a place, but a symbol
-There was also a deeply religious aspect to it
-People felt God/the Virgin Mary also cared deeply for it, civic patriotism would revolve
around processions, churches, and shrines
-Shrines developed around the city walls as there was vacant space there
-The basic myth was that God made a place holy, and thus myths began to surround
the places of these shrines
-Myths and miracles became more and more grand, and this tied in with the idea that
God had a path for this city
-This patriotism was usually about the whole city
-There was a sense however the city was divided, loyalties were both to the city and to
the sections
-These would be areas which had a part to play in the political organizations, wealthy
people would attempt to control sections as a base
-There was both cohesion and division
-There was no clear economic geography, wealthy neighborhoods vs. non-wealthy
-The early modern city did not have this, there were different economic neighborhoods
-The poor tended to live on the outskirts and the rich in the middle, but this was not
complete
-They would live all over, as they would use their palaces to control neighborhoods
-There was a ritual and political geography
-In the heart of every city there is a place where these come together
-This was the downtown, there would be the city hall, the courts, the city church, etc
-This was all in one area in the centre, this was due to connivence, but it was
considered neutral place, extraterritorial to the sections
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Document Summary

This was the period where europe began to arise as the centre of civilization. Europe underwent an intellectual, political, cultural, and economic change. It went on a path of world dominance. Europeans began to think of the world as a possession, something to be owned. At the end of the 13th to the 14th century, the city of florence made great expansions in size. Florence grew from a minor city to a population of 100,000 which would then be decimated by the bubonic plague. The black death: 1348, beginning in italy, in scotland by 1349. It killed between 1/2 and 2/3 of europe"s populace. Cities were affected by plague worse than in the countryside. Cities were generally unhealthy places to live in. Cities grew, but they did not replenish their own population, but rather, people coming to them from rural areas.

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