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HIS244H1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Enlightened Absolutism, Scientific Method, Education Reform

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Nicholas Terpstra
Study Guide

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Consumer Revolution
Emulation of the upper members of society is really what brought about the
consumer revolution
Many started to acquire goods more easily and changed their beliefs about material
There was also a change in infrastructure
oMore roads, posts, houses
greater wealth produced by Europeans
Tradition: dont need to buy more than you needed to live comfortably
New: buy as much as you can because youre able to and because its there
After the 1650s people were increasingly able to buy necessities that previously only
the elite would have been able to enjoy: mattresses, clothing, linen
There was a general dislike from the side of the elites that the poor shouldnt have
what they did
Consumption as a liberating experience: it was a choice and everyone in society was
now making choices about what they would consume
Luxury was no necessity and therefore society changed quickly

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Scientific Revolution
A culture of science, developed in Western Europe and gradually spread eastward
By the 1660s, letters, newspapers, and periodicals linked European interests to
Above all, the formation of learned associations provided a focal point for the
exchange of scientific information and vigorous debates over methodology and
findings, expanding the ranks of people interested in science
The Royal Society of London for Improving natural Knowledge was formed in 1662
under the patronage of Charles II
Its diverse membership, which included merchants, naval officers, and craftsmen,
reflected the growing interest in science in England
As an interest in scientific theories and discoveries became influential among the
educated upper classes, women also wanted to be informed about science
Several women assisted their husbands in scientific experiments
As well, Latin was increasingly being abandoned as the language of education and
scientists published their works in their own vernacular
The further one travelled east, the weaker was the impact of the Scientific
Russias distant isolation from Western culture was compounded by the Orthodox
Churchs antipathy toward the West and, therefore, opposition to scientific

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The Scientific revolution was for the most part a revolution of thought; technological
innovations would follow in the future
But during the second half of the 17th century, scientific experimentation led to the
practical application of some discoveries
Thanks to Newton, longitude could now be easily established and ocean tides
accurately charted
Voyages of discovery, commerce, and conquest to the Americas increased the demand
for new navigational instruments
Absolute monarchs sought out scientists to produce inventions that would give them
commercial and military advantages over their rivals
Tsar Peter the Great was convinced by his trip to Western Europe that Russia would
have to borrow from the West and was convinced that empirical science, along with
the creation of a system of education, would bring progress
As scientific discoveries led more people to doubt religious authority that was based
on faith alone, points of tension continued to emerge between science and religion
There seemed to be a close association between Protestant countries and advances in
science, given the precocious role of England and the Netherlands in the emergence
of a culture of science
The salient role of Protestants in the diffusion of scientific method reflected
differences between the theological stance of the Catholic church and the more
liberal ethos of the Protestant Reformation
Catholic theologians left little room for innovation or experimentation
The Protestant emphasis on individual discovery seemed to lead naturally to
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