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HIS250Y1- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 24 pages long!)


Department
History
Course Code
HIS250Y1
Professor
Alison Smith
Study Guide
Final

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UTSG
HIS250Y1
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Lecture 2 The Origins of Kievan Rus’ Sept. 14
Kievan Rus’ first ruler of Russia
o Primary Chronicles. Written by various authors covering the same time period.
o Can be corroborated by other sources
Knights adventures, mostly fictional, but the knights themselves often based on real people
Most historians believe that these epic poems arose during Kievan period.
o Lay of Igor’s Campaign
o Epic narrative in these poems revolve around Vladimir
The primary sources for early Russian period, blending together of myth, facts, and
legends.
Kievan Rus’ (860-1240)
o Kiev was the ruling city at this time
Who were the Rus’
Varangians
Rurik
Rurikid Dynasty
The Rus’ were Vikings who relocated over the sea who eventually came under the
leadership of Rurik.
o Can signify the Varangians who were the rulers and founders of the Kievan Rus’
state
o Can also signify the group of Slavic and Finnic people they ruled over
o Or it can signify the land itself
o Royal family, who adopted local Slavic language and customs.
Varangians (Vikings)
Two views: Normanist and Slavicist (Anti-Normanist)
o Normanist argue that Varangians were Vikings from Scandanavia.
o Anti- argue that the Varanginas were Slavs.
Anti normanist became less popular, but then re-vamped.
Boris Rybakov
o Chair of Russian History
o Argued that the cultural level of Varangians was lower than the cultural level of the
Slavs. No way they could have been invited back to rule over the Slavs.
o Led many archeological digs to prove that.
o Slavicists deny the Primary Chronicle.
o Why was the state language Russian and not Swedish?
o Entire Normanist theory is contraty to Marxism
Debates showing that in history interpretations are always changing. Different historians
looking at the same materials will interpret them in different ways.
Most western scholars accepting of Normanist theories.
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What is a Chronicle?
Chronos = time (Greek)
The Primary Chronicle
o Most important source of info on Kievan Rus’
o From 1040-1118
o Covers the period 852-1118
o Authors include monks Nikon and Nestor.
o Nestor: 1113-1114.
o Would be used as a base for other chronicles.
o A lot of major events described. Info about various rulers, Christianization
Details that show the culture of everyday life in the region.
First part more legendary telling of history from the beginning. Then later
events arranged in order from year to year.
Other relevant Chronicles
Novgorod First Chronicle
Chronicle of Henry of Livonia
Livonian Rhymed Chronicle
o Focuses on Livonia, written in German
Most leading cities in Kievan Rus’ also had their own chronicles (Kievan Chronicle,
Galician Volynian Chronicle, etc.)
Comprehensive history of Kievan Rus’
The Primary Chronicle: Prolegomenon
“In the share of Japheth lie Russia, Chud, and all the gentiles: Meria, Muroma, Ves, Mordova,
Chud beyond the hills, Perm, Pechera, Yam, Ugra, Litva….The Varangians dwell on the shores of
that same sea.”
Describes trade route connected Varangians with Greeks
o Coming from Sweden, going through Russtates, and to Constantinople
Russian Tribes as per the Primary Chronicle
Lists 12 Slavic tribal unions which by 10th century had settled in tehe later territory of the
Kievan Rus between the Western Bug, Dniepr and the Black sea
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