Study Guides (256,373)
CA (124,629)
UTSG (8,518)
HIS (297)
HIS271Y1 (17)
Final

Exam Study Note

51 Pages
237 Views

Department
History
Course Code
HIS271Y1
Professor
Dr.Liamvan Beek

This preview shows pages 1-3. Sign up to view the full 51 pages of the document.
Gilded Age
Period after Reconstruction, ending around 1890-1900
Called the gilded age because what may appear to be beautiful from the outside is
not necessarily beautiful on the inside
Beyond the golden exterior of growth, the interior was ripe with inequality, poverty,
and social decay
Businesses and the Workplace
Features of large-scale manufacturing:
oExploitation of immense coal deposits as a source of cheap energy
oThe rapid spread of technological innovation in transportation,
communication, and factory systems
oThe need for enormous numbers of new workers who could be carefully
controlled
oThe constant pressure on firms to compete tooth-and-nail by cutting costs and
prices
oThe relentless drop in prices
oThe failure of the money supply to keep pace with productivity
Modern Corporation
oEfficiency (scientific management, divisions of tasks and workplace
hierarchies)
oNew management techniques (middle-management between the workers and
owners)
oConsolidation (Horizontal Integration and Vertical Integration)
John D. Rockefeller
oCreator of Standard Oil and master of the use of pools and trusts to
monopolize the industry
oHe aggressively forced out his competitors
www.notesolution.com
oWhen local refineries rejected his offers to buy them out, he priced his
products below cost and strangled their businesses
oWhen rival firms teamed up against him, Rockefeller set up a pool an
agreement among several companies that established production quotas
and fixed prices
oBy 1879 Rockefeller had seized control of 90% of the countrys oil-refining
capacity
oHe then established the Standard Oil Trust, which unlike the pool, created
an umbrella corporation that ran them all
oIn this way Rockefeller integrated the petroleum industry both vertically and
horizontally, by merging the competing oil companies into one giant system
oFearful that trusts would stamp out all competition, Congress passed the
Sherman Anti-Trust Act in 1890, which outlawed trusts and monopolies
oExample of the ways in which consolidation had resulted in the formation of
huge corporations by the end of the 19th century
Ideology behind the myth
oThere were several key ideologies circulating during this age to justify this
cutthroat capitalism
oDeep-seated belief in individualism and equal-access to opportunity
Supporters of big business argued that anyone who was willing to
work hard had the same chance to gain success as anyone else
oGospel of Wealth
Rested on the idea that even though things many look uneven, if one
sector of society was successful, eventually it would translate into
other areas
Idea that people like Rockefeller had a responsibility and that his
success would create opportunities for others
oSocial Darwinism
A way of explaining why some people were still unfortunate (they
didnt work hard enough or try hard enough)
www.notesolution.com
(the average income of an industrial worker was $100-200 lower than
the minimum required to live with reasonable comfort)
Hardships of the workers
oThe average income of an industrial worker was $100-200 lower than the
minimum required to live with reasonable comfort
oUnions at this time were limited to skilled and semi-skilled workers
oThere were no real options for unskilled workers, who needed help the most
oBig businesses had changed the place of the worker... no need for skilled
workers, and unskilled workers were very replaceable
oCorporations targeted the most vulnerable (women, children, immigrants)
because they were the least protected
oCorporations did everything they could to limit the connections that workers
had with one another (split language groups, etc.)
Homestead Strike
oCompany lock-out that sparked a strike and violence at a Carnegie steel plant
in 1892
oTo destroy the union, managers had cut wages and locked out the workers
oWhen workers fired on the armed men who were hired to protect the plant, a
battle broke out
o7 union members and 3 armed guards died
oA week later the governor sent 8000 National Guardsmen to restore order
Unions failed in this period because
oIneffective in the political arena
oBlocked by state officials
oDivided by ethnic differences
oHarassed by employers
oFrustrated by court decisions
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Gilded Age Period after Reconstruction, ending around 1890-1900 Called the gilded age because what may appear to be beautiful from the outside is not necessarily beautiful on the inside Beyond the golden exterior of growth, the interior was ripe with inequality, poverty, and social decay Businesses and the Workplace Features of large-scale manufacturing: o Exploitation of immense coal deposits as a source of cheap energy o The rapid spread of technological innovation in transportation, communication, and factory systems o The need for enormous numbers of new workers who could be carefully controlled o The constant pressure on firms to compete tooth-and-nail by cutting costs and prices o The relentless drop in prices o The failure of the money supply to keep pace with productivity Modern Corporation o Efficiency (scientific management, divisions of tasks and workplace hierarchies) o New management techniques (middle-management between the workers and owners) o Consolidation (Horizontal Integration and Vertical Integration) John D. Rockefeller o Creator of Standard Oil and master of the use of pools and trusts to monopolize the industry o He aggressively forced out his competitors www.notesolution.com o When local refineries rejected his offers to buy them out, he priced his products below cost and strangled their businesses o When rival firms teamed up against him, Rockefeller set up a pool an agreement among several companies that established production quotas and fixed prices o By 1879 Rockefeller had seized control of 90% of the countrys oil-refining capacity o He then established the Standard Oil Trust, which unlike the pool, created an umbrella corporation that ran them all o In this way Rockefeller integrated the petroleum industry both vertically and horizontally, by merging the competing oil companies into one giant system o Fearful that trusts would stamp out all competition, Congress passed the Sherman Anti-Trust Act in 1890, which outlawed trusts and monopolies o Example of the ways in which consolidation had resulted in the formation of huge corporations by the end of the 19 century Ideology behind the myth o There were several key ideologies circulating during this age to justify this cutthroat capitalism o Deep-seated belief in individualism and equal-access to opportunity Supporters of big business argued that anyone who was willing to work hard had the same chance to gain success as anyone else o Gospel of Wealth Rested on the idea that even though things many look uneven, if one sector of society was successful, eventually it would translate into other areas Idea that people like Rockefeller had a responsibility and that his success would create opportunities for others o Social Darwinism A way of explaining why some people were still unfortunate (they didnt work hard enough or try hard enough) www.notesolution.com (the average income of an industrial worker was $100-200 lower than the minimum required to live with reasonable comfort) Hardships of the workers o The average income of an industrial worker was $100-200 lower than the minimum required to live with reasonable comfort o Unions at this time were limited to skilled and semi-skilled workers o There were no real options for unskilled workers, who needed help the most o Big businesses had changed the place of the worker... no need for skilled workers, and unskilled workers were very replaceable o Corporations targeted the most vulnerable (women, children, immigrants) because they were the least protected o Corporations did everything they could to limit the connections that workers had with one another (split language groups, etc.) Homestead Strike o Company lock-out that sparked a strike and violence at a Carnegie steel plant in 1892 o To destroy the union, managers had cut wages and locked out the workers o When workers fired on the armed men who were hired to protect the plant, a battle broke out o 7 union members and 3 armed guards died o A week later the governor sent 8000 National Guardsmen to restore order Unions failed in this period because o Ineffective in the political arena o Blocked by state officials o Divided by ethnic differences o Harassed by employers o Frustrated by court decisions www.notesolution.com Immigration and the City Between 1870 and 1900 nearly 11 million immigrants arrived Immigration myths: Ellis island, Americanization and the Melting Pot, Freedom and opportunity Immigration realities: exclusion, immigration restriction, assimilation, nativism o In the 1890s new immigrants start arriving from southern and eastern Europe (vs. western Europeans) o Many felt their stint in American would be temporary and thus were less willing to Americanize Fears about immigration o Americans believed those coming to the US were the drags of other countries o Immigrant communities threatened American social, cultural, and political institutions o Immigrants were unwilling to assimilate o Disease o Immigrants would take American jobs Chinese Exclusion Act, 1882 o First time a group of people were prohibited from entering the country o The exclusion act was primarily due to lobbying from Californians o Banned Chinese immigration for 10 years o Restricted rights for Chinese already living in the States (citizenship rights and banned interracial marriages) o Wasnt repealed until 1943 Immigration Restriction League, 1894 o Wanted to reduce the number of immigrants arriving in the US o Called for literacy tests to determine whether immigrants had enough basic schooling to be literate, which would make assimilation easier www.notesolution.com
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit