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HIS280Y1 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Xin Dynasty, Mahayana, Taipingjing


Department
History
Course Code
HIS280Y1
Professor
Paul Thompson
Study Guide
Midterm

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November 28 Midterm Study Notes
Theme (1): Nature of Chinese Political, Social, and Intellectual Systems in the Imperial Period
Them (2): China’s relations with other peoples, especially nomadic peoples to the North
Theme (3): Popular rebellions and folk religion
Theme (4): Family and women throughout history
*: Primary Source
5000 BCE: No real civilization or anything
3000-2000 BCE: The Lungshan Culture (1), the first stratified, hierarchical society
develops
1300 BCE: The Shang Dynasty (1) emerges
o First true civilization
o With a writing system, social hierarchy, religious practices, system of counting
o First Dynasty for which we have textual evidence
o Worshipped the Shan Di (1) (upper God) whom the King linked to humanity
The Shang captured many prisoners of war from the Qiang (2) people, and sacrificed
them and stuff. They would eventually join with the Zhou to overthrow the Shang
Typical raised armies rather than maintaining standing ones
The Three August Ones (1) are semi to completely apocryphal figures in the textual
tradition at the time of the Shang
o Fuxi (1) Who wrote on writing and marriage
o Shennong (1) Who wrote on agriculture and medicine
o Huang Di (1) The Yellow Emperor who supposedly united China and set the
example of how to govern, 2697-2597 BCE
Five Emperors (1) also preceded Shang, supposedly
o Shahao
o Zhuanxu
o Yao
o Shun
o Yu the Great who founded the Xia Dynasty (1) who Shihan said made irrigation
and also instituted father-son hereditary succession
These were followed by Cheng Tang (1) Founder of the Shang Dynasty who was
important because he founded the Shang Dynasty and King Wu (1) who would found the
Zhou Dynasty (1)
Huang Di is mythic ancestor to Chinese people who is the basis for when people say
“maybe 5000 years of continuous history”

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o Archaeological record disagrees; many cultures before time when one emerges
dominant
Does Chinese history come from one root people or just a bunch of peoples mixing
together until you had a root group?
King Zhou (1), the last king of Shang, was really bad
o Arrested and imprisoned King Wen of the Zhou
o Wen begins gathering army to overthrow him
o Killed in the campaign, son King Wu completes campaign and overthrows Shang
o Wu (1) Gathers people around including the Duke of Zhou (1) and Jiang Zhi Ya
(1)
o Jiang gets military rulership of Qi Guo after campaign
o Wu succeeds and gets the Mandate of Heaven (1, sort of 2 and 3)
The Great Declaration* (1) happens, but probably actually not
Wu dies, but while he’s alive, Duke of Zhou offers himself in place of him (to die)
o Metal-Bound Coffer* (1, 3) hold these seals of divination
o Makes everybody, Confucius, love him as icon of virtuous, loyal official
New ruling force is Tian (1, 3) who is the bestower of the Mandate of Heaven and shows
its status through natural events
1046-771 BCE: The Western Zhou (1) happens
o Western capital at Fenghao
o Zhou dispenses fiefdoms to all people who assisted conquest
o These fiefdoms become the garrisons who compete for power in the Spring and
Autumn (1) and Warring States (1) periods
o Guo (1) ruled by Dukes (1)
771-476 or 403 BCE: The Spring and Autumn Period
o Educated, clerks, scribes, experts on ritual emerge
o Their influence would ripple throughout Chinese history
Lu Guo granted to Duke of Zhou
o Qi Guo granted to Jiang Zhi Ya
“Barbarian” peoples are at this point simply people who were already around when guo
set up (2)
Eastern Zhou (1) is the half divided into S&A and Warring States Periods
Western Zhou regularly attacked by Xianyun, Quanrong (2) barbarians
771 BCE: Quanrong (2) sack Fenghao, and court relocates to Chengzhou (1)
(EASTERN ZHOU)
Gradually lose power until they have no influence to stop the states from warring
Shi and Ru (1, 3) the Confucius class, lose power whenever the guo they serve is
absorbed into a larger one
o Bearers of tradition of Zhou Dynasty
o Interpreted omens from Tian

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o Advised court people on court stuff
Spring and Autumn Period: Number of guo progressively decrease
o Dukes begin handing out fiefs themselves, a power once reserved to the Zhou
Kings
o Zhou lose relevance
453 BCE: Warring States Period (1) begins, Jing Guo is split into three different states
The Five Confucian Classics (1, 3) are composed
o Han Dynasty later decides they are compiled and edited by Confucius
o Yi Jin’s Book of Changes (1, 3)
o Shu Jin’s Book of Documents (1, 3)
o Shi Jin’s Book of Songs/Oaths (1, 3)
o Three Canons of Rites (1, 3)
o Tsun Jin’s Spring and Autumn Annals (1, 3)
Guanzi writes Sheperding the People* (1)
o Compiled 26 BCE by Han Imperial Librarian
o Much later than actual life of Guan Zong
o Guan Zong hired by Duke Huang of Qi Guo
o Establishes census, regular taxation, strict bureaucratic guidelines, emphasis on
meritocracy in state service
o Qi Guo begins to look like a real state
Guan Zi: Manual on how to rule. Be good ruler or people will scatter away from you or
rebel
Chinese philosophical tradition really begins in Eastern Zhou
Competition of ideas between Shi begin because they need to be employed for their ideas
by dukes or they will be poor
Confucian and Mohist schools begin to emerge, being taught at institutions like the Jixia
Academy (1, 3)
Hundred Schools of Thought period: Known thinkers begin to emerge; people begin to
think of themselves as Confucians or Daoists
551-479 BCE: Confucius (1, 3) is a thing. Wants to solve problem of how to be a good
man and also how to organize society
o Basic tools are rituals and social hierarchy
o Confucian Teachings* (excerpts from The Analects*, a record of conversations
Confucius had with his disciples)
o Social order only possible when everybody plays their proper role in the hierarchy
o Basically, follow the Dao (Way) to achieve Ren (gentlemanliness) and not be a
Xiaoren and maybe you’ll get to RULE (not actually a key term)
Daoism also develops
o Created by Laozi, a Zhou Dynasty scribe
o Popular religion practiced mainly by the peasant class (3)
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