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HIS388 Exam Study Sheet.docx

Course Code
Robert Hanks
Study Guide

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Exam Study Sheet
5:57 PM
Political Systems
o Second Republic (1848-1852)
Important Characters: Cavaignac, Louis Blanc, Lamartine
o Second Empire (1852-1870)
Important characters: Napoleon III
Begins: Dec 2 1852
(Coup was one year earlier, where NIII extended presidential term to 10
years; 1852 converts him into an emperor)
Napoleon III; declares empire on anniversary of Napoleon's Austerlitz
victory; and the date of Napoleon's first coup in 1804
Ends: 1870
Franco-Prussian war
o Third Republic (1870-1940)
Important characters:
Incl. 16th of May Crisis 1876
o Vichy Regime (July 1940 - August 1944)
o Fourth Republic (1945-1958)
o Fifth Republic (1958-)
Major Events
o Charter of 1814
Post-revolutionary constitution established by Louis XVIII (Bourbon)
Asserted French institutions were allowed b/c of the King's will; and the Charter
was a gift to the people
Preserved Departmental system; elements of Napoleon: prefects, civil servants,
generals maintained
Paris given dominant power over the provinces
Respect for property rights, "equality before the law"
Proclaimed Catholicism as state religion
House of Peers (aristocrats) and the Chamber of Deputies (elected)
But needed to own property to vote, be 30 years old and pay 300 francs
To be eligible for office: 40yrs old, 1000 francs/year tax
Out of 2 mil, 100k could vote
Ultimately failed:
Émigrés were bitter and hated the revolution, disliked Louis XVIII, called
him Louis Voltaire

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Bourbon heir apparent, Charles Artois, surrounded himself w/ these
émigrés; émigrés began "white terror" and the gov't was ineffective in
stopping it; émigrés wanted to restore old regime
Gov't moving extreme right (only 100k could vote) while the Chamber
moved Left
o July Ordinances 1830
Gov't was moving right while Chamber was moving Left
Charles X (previously Artois) Dissolved new Chamber before its convocation
Altered the electoral system
Deprived the wealthy bourgeoisie of the right to vote, revoking 1814 charter
Stripped the press of any semblance of liberty
Charles X tried to stage a royal coup d'état
Resulted in the 1830 (July) Revolution - Charles X forced to abdicate and
Lafayette offers the crown to Orléanist Louise-Phillipe
Calls himself King of French People; changed charter to be an
expression of the people, not the king's will
Brings Tricolour back
o July Revolution 1830
Unofficial leader/hero Marquis de Lafayette, workers, students participate
Charles X tries to suppress the uprising, but the best troops are in Algeria and the
ones in France were unhappy
Establishes Orléanists to the throne (July Monarchy/Bourgeois Monarchy)
o July Monarchy
Louis-Phillipe's gov't is corrupt, enacted program to modernize infrastructure,
didn’t pass a single law to benefit ordinary people
Showed no sympathy for broadening suffrage, or for making the ministry
responsible to the Chamber, or for permitting the president of the ministerial
council to be the real executive
Run by and for the plutocrats
Trying to find juste milieu (golden mean), stable equilibrium b/w liberty and order
o The Revolution of 1848
Partial revolution of 1930 -> was not a broad base for the July Monarchy
b/c only about 100k people could vote
No great social crisis, people were "bored" (regime's lack of glamour)
Urban workers discontent b/c: impact of socialist propaganda, long-
endured misery compounded by depression of 1846-7
Farmers: wave of bad weather, crop failures and expensive (scarce)
food; agrarian crisis
1840s also brought dangerous alienation of intellectuals -> people
like Victor Hugo, George Sand, Eugene Sue were developing
mythology of the common man, playing w/ doctrines of democracy
and socialism; Lamartine, Michelet and Louis Blanc (notable
historians) produced in 1847 new interpretations of the Great
Revolution glorifying some aspect of dramatic upheaval

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Uprising in S Italy Jan 12 as the spark
Bad moral in National Guard (frustrated desire for reform had corroded
middle and lower ranks of the bourgeoisie and found expression in the
Nat'l Guard), incompetent generals (elevated for reasons of influence
rather than competence) and Louie-Phillipe reluctant to cause unnecessary
bloodshed (led him to suspend army's pre-arranged plan at a critical
moment, when the rebels seemed to be on the run)
Corruption - evidence of financial scandal in 1847 implicated two ex-
ministers, charged w/ accepting bribes
Dissatisfaction took organized form in summer 1847, banquets to voice concerns
Huge banquet scheduled for Feb 22 1848 was cancelled by the gov't, led by
Formed provisional gov't; brought back in the Republic
Provisional gov't was solidly bourgeois; moderate wing dedicated to
political reform and radical wing, committed to social experiments as well -
> agreed on principle of universal manhood suffrage
o June Days
National Workshops -> formed to provide employment and solve the economic
problems occurring since 1846
Formed by a commission led by Louis Blanc
By June 1848, 120k workers in the workshops
Program was paid for by bourgeoisie, they despised it
Unemployment continued to grow, needed more emergency measures
National workshops eventually closed, and workers given option to join the
army or drain swamps
Results in civil war of the June Days, lasted three days 1848
Charges against those who abolished the Workshops:
Consciously aimed to provoke Parisian proletarians to revolt
No proof, but was definitely short-sighted impulsion to cut taxes
Gave rebels two full days to assemble and build street barricades so that
they (reds) might be wiped out en masse
Cavaignac refused to act immediately, possibly due to his experience
w/ supressing Algerian disorders, his strategy had been to let rebels
commit themselves to strong positions and then blast them out w/
About 15k arrested and deported to colonies
Replacement of five-man civilian executive council by a temporary military
dictatorship under Cavaignac, who became idol of the bourgeois
Lengthened odds against survival of Second Republic
o Franco-Prussian War July 1871
Dispute over Spanish throne
1870: Leopold of Prussia is invited to by king of Spain (would
surround France w/ Germans)
Ollivier gov't (NIII) puts pressure of Prussians to withdraw Leopold,
which is done
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