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HIS388 Exam Study Sheet.docx

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Department
History
Course Code
HIS388H1
Professor
Robert Hanks

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Exam Study Sheet
April-14-12
5:57 PM
Political Systems
o Second Republic (1848-1852)
Important Characters: Cavaignac, Louis Blanc, Lamartine
Begins:
Ends:
o Second Empire (1852-1870)
Important characters: Napoleon III
Begins: Dec 2 1852
(Coup was one year earlier, where NIII extended presidential term to 10
years; 1852 converts him into an emperor)
Napoleon III; declares empire on anniversary of Napoleon's Austerlitz
victory; and the date of Napoleon's first coup in 1804
Ends: 1870
Franco-Prussian war
o Third Republic (1870-1940)
Important characters:
Begins:
Ends:
Incl. 16th of May Crisis 1876
o Vichy Regime (July 1940 - August 1944)
o Fourth Republic (1945-1958)
o Fifth Republic (1958-)
Major Events
o Charter of 1814
Post-revolutionary constitution established by Louis XVIII (Bourbon)
Asserted French institutions were allowed b/c of the King's will; and the Charter
was a gift to the people
Preserved Departmental system; elements of Napoleon: prefects, civil servants,
generals maintained
Paris given dominant power over the provinces
Respect for property rights, "equality before the law"
Proclaimed Catholicism as state religion
House of Peers (aristocrats) and the Chamber of Deputies (elected)
But needed to own property to vote, be 30 years old and pay 300 francs
tax/year
To be eligible for office: 40yrs old, 1000 francs/year tax
Out of 2 mil, 100k could vote
Ultimately failed:
Émigrés were bitter and hated the revolution, disliked Louis XVIII, called
him Louis Voltaire
Bourbon heir apparent, Charles Artois, surrounded himself w/ these
émigrés; émigrés began "white terror" and the gov't was ineffective in
stopping it; émigrés wanted to restore old regime
Gov't moving extreme right (only 100k could vote) while the Chamber
moved Left
o July Ordinances 1830
Gov't was moving right while Chamber was moving Left
Charles X (previously Artois) Dissolved new Chamber before its convocation
Altered the electoral system
Deprived the wealthy bourgeoisie of the right to vote, revoking 1814 charter
Stripped the press of any semblance of liberty
Significance:
Charles X tried to stage a royal coup d'état
Resulted in the 1830 (July) Revolution - Charles X forced to abdicate and
flee
Lafayette offers the crown to Orléanist Louise-Phillipe
Calls himself King of French People; changed charter to be an
expression of the people, not the king's will
Brings Tricolour back
o July Revolution 1830
Unofficial leader/hero Marquis de Lafayette, workers, students participate
Charles X tries to suppress the uprising, but the best troops are in Algeria and the
ones in France were unhappy
Establishes Orléanists to the throne (July Monarchy/Bourgeois Monarchy)
o July Monarchy
1830-1848
Louis-Phillipe's gov't is corrupt, enacted program to modernize infrastructure,
didn’t pass a single law to benefit ordinary people
Showed no sympathy for broadening suffrage, or for making the ministry
responsible to the Chamber, or for permitting the president of the ministerial
council to be the real executive
Run by and for the plutocrats
Trying to find juste milieu (golden mean), stable equilibrium b/w liberty and order
o The Revolution of 1848
Causes:
Partial revolution of 1930 -> was not a broad base for the July Monarchy
b/c only about 100k people could vote
No great social crisis, people were "bored" (regime's lack of glamour)
Urban workers discontent b/c: impact of socialist propaganda, long-
endured misery compounded by depression of 1846-7
Farmers: wave of bad weather, crop failures and expensive (scarce)
food; agrarian crisis
1840s also brought dangerous alienation of intellectuals -> people
like Victor Hugo, George Sand, Eugene Sue were developing
mythology of the common man, playing w/ doctrines of democracy
and socialism; Lamartine, Michelet and Louis Blanc (notable
historians) produced in 1847 new interpretations of the Great
Revolution glorifying some aspect of dramatic upheaval
Uprising in S Italy Jan 12 as the spark
Bad moral in National Guard (frustrated desire for reform had corroded
middle and lower ranks of the bourgeoisie and found expression in the
Nat'l Guard), incompetent generals (elevated for reasons of influence
rather than competence) and Louie-Phillipe reluctant to cause unnecessary
bloodshed (led him to suspend army's pre-arranged plan at a critical
moment, when the rebels seemed to be on the run)
Corruption - evidence of financial scandal in 1847 implicated two ex-
ministers, charged w/ accepting bribes
Dissatisfaction took organized form in summer 1847, banquets to voice concerns
Huge banquet scheduled for Feb 22 1848 was cancelled by the gov't, led by
Guizot
Significance:
Formed provisional gov't; brought back in the Republic
Provisional gov't was solidly bourgeois; moderate wing dedicated to
political reform and radical wing, committed to social experiments as well -
> agreed on principle of universal manhood suffrage
o June Days
National Workshops -> formed to provide employment and solve the economic
problems occurring since 1846
Formed by a commission led by Louis Blanc
By June 1848, 120k workers in the workshops
Program was paid for by bourgeoisie, they despised it
Unemployment continued to grow, needed more emergency measures
National workshops eventually closed, and workers given option to join the
army or drain swamps
Results in civil war of the June Days, lasted three days 1848
Charges against those who abolished the Workshops:
Consciously aimed to provoke Parisian proletarians to revolt
No proof, but was definitely short-sighted impulsion to cut taxes
Gave rebels two full days to assemble and build street barricades so that
they (reds) might be wiped out en masse
Cavaignac refused to act immediately, possibly due to his experience
w/ supressing Algerian disorders, his strategy had been to let rebels
commit themselves to strong positions and then blast them out w/
artillery
About 15k arrested and deported to colonies
Effects:
Replacement of five-man civilian executive council by a temporary military
dictatorship under Cavaignac, who became idol of the bourgeois
Lengthened odds against survival of Second Republic
o Franco-Prussian War July 1871
Why:
Dispute over Spanish throne
1870: Leopold of Prussia is invited to by king of Spain (would
surround France w/ Germans)
Ollivier gov't (NIII) puts pressure of Prussians to withdraw Leopold,
which is done

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Description
Exam Study Sheet April1412 557 PMPolitical Systems o Second Republic 18481852Important Characters Cavaignac Louis Blanc Lamartine BeginsEnds o Second Empire 18521870Important characters Napoleon IIIBegins Dec 2 1852Coup was one year earlier where NIII extended presidential term to 10 years 1852 converts him into an emperorNapoleon III declares empireon anniversary of Napoleons Austerlitz victory and the date of Napoleons first coup in 1804Ends 1870FrancoPrussian war o Third Republic 18701940Important charactersBeginsEndsIncl 16th of May Crisis 1876 o Vichy Regime July 1940August 1944o Fourth Republic 19451958o Fifth Republic 1958Major Events o Charter of 1814Postrevolutionary constitution established by Louis XVIII BourbonAsserted French institutions were allowed bc of the Kings will and the Charter was a gift to the peoplePreserved Departmental system elements of Napoleon prefects civil servants generals maintainedParis given dominant power over the provincesRespect for property rights equality before the lawProclaimed Catholicism as state religionHouse of Peers aristocrats and the Chamber of Deputies electedBut needed to own property to vote be 30 years old and pay 300 francs taxyearTo be eligible for office 40yrs old 1000 francsyear taxOut of 2 mil 100k could voteUltimately failedmigrs were bitter and hated the revolution disliked Louis XVIII called him Louis VoltaireBourbon heir apparent Charles Artois surrounded himself w these migrs migrs began white terror and the govt was ineffective in stopping it migrs wanted to restore old regimeGovt moving extreme right only 100k could vote while the Chamber moved Left o July Ordinances 1830Govt was moving right while Chamber was moving Left Charles X previously Artois Dissolved new Chamber before its convocationAltered the electoral systemDeprived the wealthy bourgeoisie of the right to vote revoking 1814 charterStripped the press of any semblance of libertySignificanceCharles X tried to stage a royal coup dtatResulted in the 1830 July RevolutionCharles X forced to abdicate and fleeLafayette offers the crown to Orlanist LouisePhillipeCalls himself King of French People changed charter to be an expression of the people not the kings willBrings Tricolour back o July Revolution 1830Unofficial leaderhero Marquis de Lafayette workers students participateCharles X tries to suppress the uprising but the best troops are in Algeria and the ones in France were unhappyEstablishes Orlanists to the throne July MonarchyBourgeois Monarchy o July Monarchy18301848LouisPhillipes govt is corrupt enacted program to modernize infrastructure didnt pass a single law to benefit ordinary peopleShowed no sympathy for broadening suffrage or for making the ministry responsible to the Chamber or for permitting the president of the ministerial council to be the real executiveRun by and for the plutocratsTrying to find juste milieu golden mean stable equilibrium bw liberty and order o The Revolution of 1848CausesPartial revolution of 1930was not a broad base for the July Monarchy bc only about 100k people could voteNo great social crisis people were bored regimes lack of glamourUrban workers discontent bc impact of socialist propaganda longendured misery compounded by depression of 18467Farmers wave of bad weather crop failures and expensive scarce food agrarian crisis1840s also brought dangerous alienation of intellectualspeople like Victor Hugo George Sand Eugene Sue were developing mythology of the common man playing w doctrines of democracy and socialism Lamartine Michelet and Louis Blanc notable historians produced in 1847 new interpretations of the Great Revolution glorifying some aspect of dramatic upheaval
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