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HIS109Y1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Maximilien Robespierre, Sidereus Nuncius, Otto Von Bismarck

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Kenneth Bartlett
Study Guide

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Previous Exam Terms
English Reformation: A series of events in England that occurred during the 16th
century. This is significant because it highlights when the Church of England broke away
from the authority of the Pope and Roman Catholic Church.
Scramble for Africa: period of colonization of African territory by European powers
during the period of 1881 to 1914. Significant because it caused conflict among Europe.
Thirty Years War: Bloodiest and longest series of wars of European history. Broke out
in Bohemia between 1618 1648, then the rest of Europe got involved. Significant
because it drew attention to different concepts of how peace could be achieved. It was
also the first Europe-wide war.
The Reign of Terror: a period of violence that terrorized France at the start of the
French Revolution, from 1793-1794. This period was lead by Maximillien Robespierre,
the leading radical of the French Revolution. Significant because it gave the French a
reason to never return to a monarchy for a government.
The Council of Trent: Held in Italy between 1545 and 1563. It was a council of the
members of the Roman Catholic Church that met together in order to discuss the outburst
of the Protestant Reformation. Significant because it was the main source of the Counter-
Treaty of Versailles: Peace Treaty proposed at the end of WWI that was written with
clauses that blamed Germany for the outbreak of WWI and they would be responsible for
the war damages. It was signed by Germany and the allies in 1919. Significant because it
was the peace treaty that ended WWI, and also the treaty that fueled Adolf Hitler’s anger
to ignite WW2 against the Allies.
Black Death: A deathly plague that struck Europe in 1348-1389. Significant because it
helped Europe by lowering the population by 50%, therefore wages had to increase.
“Final Solution”: The Nazi Plan to enact genocide against the Jewish population in
Germany and completely destroy all of them in the mid 1900s. Significant because it led
to one of the largest human genocides in history.
Operation Barbarossa: The code name for Hitler’s plan for Nazi Germany to invade the
Soviet Union in 1941. Significant because it forced Stalin to enter WW2 against the
Germans, and now Germany would have to fight a war on two fronts since it was already
battling Britain.
Eugenics: set of beliefs that aims to try and improve the genetic quality of the human
population. Created by Charles Darwin and Francis Galton in 1883. Significant because it
was a system that tried to scientifically modify the gene pool of human beings in order to
“create” their own humans; went against the strict beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Origin of Species (3/5 Exams): A piece of work based on scientific literature
written by Charles Darwin and published in 1859. Significant because it was the first
published book to propose the Theory of Evolution which shocked the Victorian society.
Wannsee Conference: Nazi conference in Wannsee, Germany that decided to enact the
“Final Solution” in 1942, which was an extermination of Jews from society. Significant
because it was a massive state-sponsored genocide.
Petrarch (4/5 Exams): Scholar and poet in Renaissance Italy, born 1304, Died, 1374.
Significant because he was one of the earliest humanists who began a revolution of the
beginning of Western tradition of an autonomous and secular human agency.
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John Calvin: Theologian during the protestant reformation in France, born 1509, died
1564. Significant as founder of new Christian theology called Calvinism.
Galileo Galilei (2/5 Exams): Astronomer, philosopher and mathematician from Italy;
born 1564, died 1642. Significant for inventing the telescope and his discoveries that he
published in “The Starry Messenger” and “The Assayer” threw doubt at people’s belief in
Oliver Cromwell: Military leader in England born 1599-1658. Significant because he led
the uprising King Charles I and later killed him. This was huge because Charles I was the
first king to be killed by how own people.
Cardinal Richelieu: clergyman of France, born 1585, died 1624. He became King Louis
XIII chief minister in 1624 until his death. Significant because Louis XIII left many of
his leadership duties to Richelieu who had a major hand in running France.
Montesquieu: Lawyer born 1689, died 1755 in France. Significant because of his
publication of the “Spirit of the Laws” in 1748 on the separation of powers.
Adam Smith: Philosopher in England, born 1723-1790. Wrote “The Wealth of Nations”
which introduced Laissez-Faire economics The government has no place telling an
employer how to run their business. Significant because of his introduction to free
Charles Fourier: Philosopher in France, born 1772-1837. Believed that by alienating
people, you are making them unhappy. Significant for focusing on the division of labour
and introducing utopian socialism.
Otto Von Bismarck (3/5 Exams): Imperial chancellor of Emperor Wilhelm I in
Germany, born 1815-1898. Significant for uniting Germany under Prussian leadership in
the 1870s.
Vladimir Lenin: Russian communist born1870-1924. Significant for adopting New
Economic Policy which permitted peasants to sell anything on the market for whatever
they could get. Also significant for being the founder of the Russian Communist party
and leader of the Bolshevik revolution.
Denis Diderot: philosopher in France, born 1713-1784. Significant for co-editing the
Robert Owen (2/5 Exams): Social Reformer in England; born 1771-1858. Significant as
one of the founders of Utopian Socialism when he believed that members of unions could
take control of the factories they were employed at.
Sigmund Freud (2/5 Exams): Austrian neurologist; born 1856-1939. Believed we were
driven by unconscious mind, studied this through hypnosis. Significant because his
theories challenged that we were in control of ourselves.
Louis-Napolean Bonaparte (2/5 Exams): Heir to the French throne of Napolean I, born
1808-1873. Significance: Ended the second republic in France by extending his term as
president and making himself Emperor.
Erasmus: Dutch Renaissance Humanist (Netherlands): Born 1460s. Significance: In
1513, he wrote “The Praise of Folley” which made fun of people who pretended to be
religious. Also was the first editor of the Greek Bible.
Thomas Hobbes: Royalist of England; 1588-1679. Signficance: Wrote “Leviathan” as a
way to call out the state for being a monster and preying upon the weak citizens. Wanted
to create laws where everyone was treated equally.
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