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HIS109Y1- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 130 pages long!)


Department
History
Course Code
HIS109Y1
Professor
Kenneth Bartlett
Study Guide
Final

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UTSG
HIS109Y1
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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History Lecture 1 09/16/2015
To see past exams, go to the library website and see “past exams”
Feudalism 09/21/2015
Why did Feudalism develop?
Beginning in the time of the collapse of the Roman Empire
Operation of government ceased
Roman state system broke down after attack from Barbarians
In Rome, they would practice a clientage (where a man had a group of people
follow him around as protection, for reputation, and for employment)
Clientage became devoted to security after the Collapse of Rome
This caused a swarm of people to want to join a clientage (they became an army
that protected the property of a powerful man)
A tribal chieften wanted to create his own group of ruthless men who would win
every battle
He created this group called his Comitatus (a group of companions)
Nothing was safe during this time period, so people looked to these groups for
protection
These amateur groups eventually became actual legitimate groups in Western
Europe for protection
Being in this group, people felt protected, recognized, and legally represented
This became Rome’s new government
Lasted 1000 years
Everything changed when a new piece of technology was introduced where people
could fight while riding on horseback. This new invention was the Stirrup, giving the
fighter security to remain on the horse while fighting rather than falling off
Training was essential to begin fighting on horseback
This led to the development of a class of people that we call Knights
If one group could fight on horses, the other group must as well if they want to
stand a chance
These fighters must be trained as a child, meaning that these children had to live in
leisure
Honchos then gave fighters their property, and farmers became attached to the
land so that the land would stay prosperous to afford the training needed for the
fighters
This group is known as a Hereditary Nobility (people who are living to fight, and live
off other people’s hard work to provide for yourself)
Since land was technically power, the honchos were basically giving away their
power and authority to the fighters
All that mattered was the private power of the person protecting you
Law is now the ability of the individual to enfore it. Everything depends on the
excersise of power and brute force
This moment of feudalism was a moment of extreme violence and danger
What ended Feudalism?
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It was very successful and spread into England, Italy, everywhere
The coming of money in a cash economy changed Feudalism
A new group began to form in society People who have money but are not land
owners, people who were intelligent but not priests…
Truth about European civilization The Law follows Commerce
The Romans already had an Emporor (Imperial Sovereignty)
The descendants of those chieftons still had control of the land, so the thugs would
be given the land only if they agreed to fight for the Descendant when he needed
them
The system became to be regularized
AKA other people know whats happening in the society and can easily access that
knowledge (By redefining the problem, you solve the problem)
The Three Estates
1) The First Estate The clergy: Life was Nasty, Brutish and Short, let’s hope that
the next one is better. They could help you get to heaven
2) The Second Estate The Nobility: Offered protection on earth. Given the right to
rule just by being born into authority and being able to fight on horseback
3) The Third Estate Everyone Else: did the work of the world. Worked in order to
provide for the other 2 estates who didn’t have to work. Mostly attatched to the land
The Second Estate
The nobility came from the knights
They had social prestige
They saw the ownership of land, warfare, government as their own monopoly
The nobility saw themselves as privilidged
Determined by birth and function (fighting on horseback)
The First Estate
Represented Ameritocracy (where the best could rise)
They owned a lot of land
The people gave money to the church in order to try and get themselves into
heaven
Bishops were milking this belief ^^
They gave their allegiance to a Lord in exchange for property (This is called a Fief)
These men only owed their allegiance to the pope
Most of the people in the clergy were born of noble families
Surplus children of prominent families were the ones put into the clergy
The Third Estate
No rights, no power, nothing…
Over 90% of population
Divided, couldn’t organize because their lives were determined by where they
worked
They were always under the authority
What Changed the Third Estate?
The coming of the money economy
The Role of Women
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find more resources at oneclass.com
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