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HIS263Y1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Giovanni Da Verrazzano, North West Company, Iroquoian Languages

Course Code
Mc Kim/ Penfold
Study Guide

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Jacques Cartier
French explorer who in 1534, 1535, and 1541 embarks on extremely significant
voyages down the St. Lawrence River
Using information brought back by Giovanni de Verrazano in 1524, Cartier arrives
in the St. Lawrence River and encountered Aboriginal people
Interacts with the Mikmaq (Algonquian)
On his 1534 voyage he planted a cross proclaiming the land for France
On his 1535 voyage he arrived in a village called Stadacona, home of the king
On his 1541 voyage he set out with the objective of establishing permanent, year-
round colony, he travelled freely along the St. Lawrence river, disregarding
traditional tribal borders and on this voyage over a quarter of his crew was killed by
The descriptions that Cartier and his crew left about their initial interactions with
the Mikmaq suggests that they had had previous contact with Europeans (they
waved fur on sticks to initiate trade) Vikings
He was the first European to map the St. Lawrence River
He gave the land the name Canada, after the Iroquois names for the settlements at
Planting the cross presumed a superiority of Christianity over the aboriginal
religions and he staked a claim for France, laying the groundwork for a permanent
French presence in North America
Interacted and formed friendships with the aboriginals, a key part of French success
on the continent
Samuel de Champlain
Early 17th century de facto Governor of New France
Makes his first voyage to the New World in 1603 and by the time died he crossed the
Atlantic 24 times

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He dreamed that one day New France would rival and possibly surpass France itself
in terms of population, wealth, and military/political interests
His dream rested on the economic factor of exploiting fur stocks and the religious
factor of spreading Christianity throughout North America
He envisioned large scale missionary activity large-scale conversion
As well, he encouraged intermarriage as a way of absorbing the Aboriginal peoples
into French culture
He helped establish Port Royal and Acadia, the first French settlement in the New
World, although they dont choose to make it a long-term base because it was too far
from the St. Lawrence
He also establishes the trading base of Quebec, which would become a very
important point from which France would conduct commerce in the New World
Founded in 1634 by Jean de Brebeuf and his Jesuit associates
It was to be a permanent missionary establishment among the Iroquois-speaking
Huronia is an example of the ways in which European religion and disease impacted
the fate of the Aboriginal peoples
By 1639, only 5 years after its founding, the population had been reduced by half
In response, a council of Hurons met to discuss what to do with the Jesuits, but they
were eventually allowed to stay because of the Huron communitys reliance on both
European manufactured goods and the trade networks that their alliance gave them
access to
As well, many people in Huronia had been converted
Hybridity a hybrid entity which combined both Aboriginal and Christian
Eventually, the Iroquois attack Huronia, which was already weakened by small pox,
and is eventually devastated
Brebeuf is killed as well

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The Order of the Jesuits were called to New France in the early 17th century to
Christianize and educate the aboriginal population, a job that had formerly been
done by the Recollects, who grew frustrated with their lack of success
They were sent by Cardinal Richelieu
They were responsible for the education in New France, teaching the Aboriginals not
just Christianity but also a Western education including reading and writing
They even founded a college for Aboriginal boys, as an institution of higher learning,
before the British founded any in their colonies
Secondly, the Jesuits wrote yearly reports, called Relations back home to France
and thus pose as a valuable historical source for a time that would otherwise be
virtually unknown
Despite the Jesuits’ best efforts to Christianize the Native population, the
Aboriginals were deeply suspicious of the Jesuits ways, believing that they brought
sickness and evil
Jean Baptise Colbert and the Royal Takeover of 1663
Jean-Baptiste Colbert served as the French minister of finance from 1665 to 1683
under the rule of King Louis XIV
Along with Louis XIV, Colbert sought to transform New France and turn it into a
French province
Colbert worked to export the French governmental structures and economic systems
to North America
This desire manifested itself into the Royal Takeover of 1663
Prior to the Takeover, New France had three characteristics
oFrench imperial authorities were interested in prompting settlement
oTrade, particularly with indigenous peoples
oMissionary activity
As a result, New France was scattered in its objectives
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