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Department
History
Course
HIS102Y1
Professor
Ashley Wright
Semester
Winter

Description
HIS - TEST #1 Lecture 1 Polynesian Voyages China - 1400 - Wealthiest country - Growth in commercial economy - They had strong rulers - Their trade roots helped -> military, expansion of trade - Held back threats from invasion on the north Zheng He - Admiral of the empire fleet - 7 voyages - btw indian ocean an africa - Motive - exploration and trade roots - Had boats designed to show wealth - Over 30 yrs. then stopped because shift in influences (needed to forces on western defense & politics bcd ppl didn't like he was a tunic) Vikings - violent ppl - Started to explained bcd could now live in places they couldn't b4 bcd of cli- mate i.e. Iceland - Then left because it got to cold DAY 1 - THE AZTEC EMPIRE & THE SPANISH CONQUEST - Doesn't happen immediately - 1492 on - there is a new global connection Iberian Kingdoms & Early Atlantic Exploration Kingdoms of Ib. Peninsula -> Spain and Portugal HIS - TEST #1 DAY 1 - THE AZTEC EMPIRE & THE SPANISH CONQUEST Technology Ship building The caravel - Was small - Easier to use in shallow waters - Sailed up river allowed for american exploration Armaments - major innovation in canon, gun powder (china invented) - euro adopted this tech = euro had more acces to more metals Iberian position in the end Lizbim and information networks - key, Mediterranean and Atlantic network Historical conquest The Reconquista - islamic invaded Atlantic peninsula - Took back the peninsula - Important for Atlantic voyages bcd it was a military con- quest and spiritual endeavors Early Atlantic Voyages Canary Island A port prince voyages to the canary islands Henry the Navigator - captured Ceuta, Morocco - Political motives - Wanted to win their worth by a battle and it was done by capturing the city - The ports have a hold in north africa - As expanded, gained knowledge of: - 1. Maritime routes & better maps - 2. Route connecting interior of africa and N african coast (when found this, wanted portion of trade - Discovery of atlantic trade patterns HIS - TEST #1 DAY 1 - THE AZTEC EMPIRE & THE SPANISH CONQUEST Voyages Along the Coast - Desire for small trading post to help maintain elites of West Africa - Ports est new colonies = more resources, sugar, slave labour - Discover important - gold coast & Benin The Aztec Empire Historical Context - Newer rise to power - They were the mexican - Tenochtitlan became a largest city in the world - They were at the height of power but still ruled in fear - 1519 clash of cultures - like nothing b4 - spans vs. Aztecs - Aztec empire is a history of city states separated politi- cally but no economically - local gov’t ruled city states (conquered land) & had to pay taxes to triple alliances, most to Teno - These govt helped ruling because they kept ppl happy & stability in city states Aztec expansion TRIPLE ALLIANCE - formed in 1430 - Important bcd power expands, conquer more Tenochtitlan & Tlacopan & Texcoco - strongest city state was Teno - These are the major powers -Tlatcani - the leader of the city - when they conquered, pay tax, but were left freedom to continue with certain amounts of their religion as long as it didnt conflict with govt. - They conquered lands by force of tax tribute HIS - TEST #1 The Aztec Empire Economic organization - ppl served to the elite -> labour used to maintain infra- structure - Arrogation -> ppl did what they were good at bcd the owed work to the city states - Social structure - mass vs. Hereditary elite ruling - There was diversity of empire, language culture etc. - Pop owed tribute to A empire - Ppl in 2 social class 1. Pilli (nobility) 2. Macehualli com- mon people - Unit of the A govt was called Calpulli - which is a name for groups of families who owned land - there was a leader in each to make sure taxes were collected Columbus in the Caribbean - 1st voyage to find trade routes in africa * key transition - 2nd voyage to settle in Arawakk, - Columbus was granted lands that he would discover in the west indies by the queen Isabella of the spans - When he returned and told the queen she wanted to colonize the islands - Columbus spend the rest of his life from euro back and forth to the new world and its colonies - They both died in 1500, but the expansion continued - The A had vision of something bad happening but were interpreting it very wrong - when spanish arrived they thought it was a prince arrival who had been gone for some time and brought them gifts. - When they knew it wasn't the prince, the emperor, ran from the throne and surrender his ppl to the Spaniards - (broken spears) HIS - TEST #1 The Spanish Conquest ... - Cortes was the leader of the conquest - Planned a divided conquest which could have been an advan- tage to the A - Landed in 1519 - Was the most important campaign in the spanish colonization of the americas - Governor Vlasquez sent cortez on the expedition to find a new kingdom and conquer - Aztec - When the spans arrived they burned all aztec ship expect one that moves to the city state of Tlaxcala - Then moved to Cholula and killed many - was a scared city and major commercial center - Then they arrive in Teno, on good terms, knowing that they dont need to fear the Aztecs - When they finally conquer they demand tribute to the roman catholic faith, and they want gold and treasure - Cortes also burns his own ship to make sure that his people are loyal to him - ***November 8 1519*** aztec meet the spans - The spanish in cuba wanted to some land as well so they Spaniards were fighting them as well - The A revolt and push the spanish out so spans allie with Tlaxcala who is under their own control and force back in - They siege most of the empire then contunie to Teno - The last empire then surrenders to cortes. HIS - TEST #1 The Spanish Conquest The fall of the A’s Diseases - Carried by spanish who were immune to fight them off were brought to the indies where no one there was immune and killed many - brought it by accident but it helped them - Pop of the mexican went from 13 million to 700 000 - Small pox, measles and yellow fever Political Factors - indigenous collaboration of the Tlaxalan, who weren't under A control so allied with the Spans - these ppl were important bcd they knew the land, culture, etc, so they could help make the conquest easier - Civil war: when 400 000 became collaborators Technology Factors - 2 different ways of fighting - Guns and steal gave much advantage Cultural Factors - the A were having bad omens but didn't know what they meant and spans were a shock to them - A custom was to give warning before battle, they didnt. the Spanish Con- Nov 8 1519 - cortez and montezuma meet quest July 20 1520 - spanish retreat from teno Aug 13 1521 - spanish conquest of teno - cortes alliances with texcoco makes then stronger - He block teno from any sources, makes them sick etc, then at- tacks en weak HIS - TEST #1 The Spanish Conquest Effects - political control spain - council of indies - Immigration from span to come est state and convert ppl Colombian exchange - transformation of ppl, culture etc from old to new world Economic The Encomienda - The span system The Enomenderos - ppl who owned the land in span - the spans let them keep their system until they say it was get- ting bad and ban it - The Repbrtimento - ppl now were inslaved by the land owners Social - Force of Christianity DAY 2 - The Portuguese Conquest of Malacca Spices as a commodity - the spice islands were VERY important - They preserved food - Spices couldnt be grown in other euro places so they were significant i.e. Cloves, pepper nutmeg - Est trade root called silk road - connecting trails from china to eastern euro (used to transport silk from china) Port expand to south - voyages for economic reasons (spices) and religious rea- Asia son (discover mythical kingdom of Prester John) - Gain control of Indian coast 1494 treaty of Tordesil- - span and port fighting over the new land, pope alexander la splits the land port the east and spain the west HIS - TEST #1 DAY 2 - The Portuguese Conquest of Malacca Spices as a commodity - the spice islands were VERY important - They preserved food - Spices couldnt be grown in other euro places so they were significant i.e. Cloves, pepper nutmeg - Est trade root called silk road - connecting trails from china to eastern euro (used to transport silk from china) Port Dilemma - there is no demand for euro good in asia - Venice and Genoa control spice trade in euro - They divert all trade make silk road irrelevant and funnel around the capital of africa Port aggression to the First Attack indian oceans - the ports attack the shores of Malay and fight for hrs. - Men dying with no supplies = retreat - The only gain control of the access into malacca, but weren’t strong enough to hold it Second attack - in 1511 capture of Malacca - They held onto it until it was captured by the dutch in 1641 - Lead by Aldonso D’Albuquerque HIS - TEST #1 DAY 2 - The Portuguese Conquest of Malacca Spices as a commodity - the spice islands were VERY important - They preserved food - Spices couldnt be grown in other euro places so they were significant i.e. Cloves, pepper nutmeg - Est trade root called silk road - connecting trails from china to eastern euro (used to transport silk from china) Malacca - the sultan of mal controlled the spice trade - Its main routes connecting the indian ocean and the south china sea - Ports wanted it bcd it was the main little route you had to go through to get to euro or china **** it was strategic loca- tion - Cosmopolitan state - trade encouraged, forgien merch was perfected - Core city of the network of muslim connection - Minted trade surplus - Had a flow of treasures - Muslim state - it helped to spread the islam culture to south east asia - which was key for trust in trading - It was the hing of 2 strong communities Estate Da India - Port interested in gaining control of trading and drive it to the tip of africa, not to expand - Couldnt gain control of the spice trade - Carats System (made traders by a pass to ship to asia ports) Port conquest of - Political instability - sultain Muhammad had to retire and Malacca son took over, Ahmad, then ports began to attacked, kicked son out and came back = weakness for them - 1511 malacca falls to the ports HIS - TEST #1 DAY 2 - The Portuguese Conquest of Malacca Spices as a commodity - the spice islands were VERY important - They preserved food - Spices couldnt be grown in other euro places so they were significant i.e. Cloves, pepper nutmeg - Est trade root called silk road - connecting trails from china to eastern euro (used to transport silk from china) Ports conquest of south - They wanted full economic control of spice trade east asia - Ports profit by taxing what went through the spice trade (caratse system) - permit to pass through waters - 1509 …. - Port governor of india was allowed a trading post in Malac- ca - Port get expelled from india bcd they say they want to in- vade malacca - Invade malacca 2 reason - 1. religious justification (malac- ca was a muslim state) 2. Source of all spices Effects of Conquest - There was reorganization and fortification of Mal - Political system - territories now paied tribute to Mal which keep them protected - Rise of Johor (where the sultan ran when ports attacked) Muhammad maintained a rival power base there - In the end the dutch want power and seize malacca and become the dominant euro power Rise of the dutch VOC - Verged Oost-Indische Campaign - Joint stock company - many investors who didnt have to put all their money into it = did not go bankrupt Ports - began to take over the spice island - Ppl were more willing to their conquer because their reason was not missionary HIS - TEST #1 Dutch empire in south east asia Dutch in Malacca - when dutch arrive malacca declines and becomes less of a trading base - The physicality of it declines as well - rivers dry up Dutch seize muslim - 1670 seize muslim kingdoms of java kingdoms - Dutch expand - Their VOC is then transition in how they control production Ports in the spice island 11513 ...- allowed a post to trade with sultan of Ternate 1521 the Dutch ...Spanish ally with Tidier who is an rivial with ternate 1529 ...- resolved, ports get the spice island and spanish get colony of the Philippines Malacca under ports Manyicient that it ends problems Aggression to missionary to Christianity and corruption in the govt …. Britain then - 1650, begin to rivial with holland for commercial reasons Rcome to controllion t- Britain then seize malaccatraders stopped even using malacca as route DECLINE of ports empireFiniacla issues above Corruption in govt - was inefficient 1570 ports were expelled from spics islandsTION OF SUAGR History - Enrichment of Britain pow
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