Final Study Guide

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University of Toronto St. George
Sutherland- Harris

HIS102 Final exam study guide Jan 8: Imperial Culture & Foreign Relations (lec)/East Asia and the Early Modern World (syl) ← 1500-1750 c.e. ← Policies of Isolation in Asia • The approach to thinking that China was isolated from the rest of the world was called being ‘Eurocentric’ • China, Japan were not isolated, often characterized as such because of limited contact with Europe during the 1600’s ← The Glory of the Qing Empire (China) • The Ming Dynasty and how it ended o Restored Chinese rule after the mongols o Zheng he took ships to establish imperial prestige, took many ships to show power o Flourishing commercial culture lots of literature and arts o Traded lots with the Spanish settlement in the Philippines o Exported porcelain, silk, textiles, paper o Even began to make things specifically for export  In exchange took silver from the Spanish mining in South America o Internally suffered from a famine due to severe cold weather pattern in 1600  Environmental factors weakened the Ming  Weren’t able to provide relief to the people during the cold spout, couldn’t even provide emergency grain  During the famines people began to join the rebellion • Many threats from the internal rebellion arose • There were also threats from the outside by the Nomads “Manchu” ← Manchu (Qing Empire) • Was a military organized society • Came from the North East • Began to encroach North China • Defeated Ming dynasty in 1644 o Then became the Qing Empire • When the Manchu took over China they tried to keep their own religion o They banned inter-marriage to keep bloodline pure o Kept up cultural practices like archery, kept people speaking the native languages o Also kept religion’s separate ← Imperial Expansion of the Qing • Conquered outlying nations o Conquered xinjiang region  Xinjiang was muslim o The Qing started ruling over alien people on the frontiers o They let the muslim conquered territories keep their religion separate – the areas were a valuable trade region • Thus the Qing became a truly multi-ethnic empire ← Cultural flowering & Imperial Prestige • Emperor Qian long o Liked painters and artists o Sponsored a giant commission of classic texts, which took 10 years to complete and ended up being 36000 volumes of manuscripts • The Jesuits came to China o Were tolerated and welcomed because they presented themselves as scholars o The Jesuits were good at math, astronomy, science o They were also architects and the emperor Qian long had them build his summer palace o The Jesuits were welcome until some fights started amongst themselves about the issue of religious conversion ← Louis XIV at Versailles • Europeans liked the idea of China giving merit to scholars • Chinoiserie – chinese art that is not quite genuine o There was a lot of demand for this imitation art in Europe ← In 1700 the Chinese population grew which was a sign of prosperity ← Tokugawa Japan (under the rule of tokugawa • Before Tokugawa o Emperor reigned but did not rule o Power was in the hands of the officials o Emperor was more of a figurehead – he was said to be descended from the sun gods directly o Hierarchy of power  Emperor  Shogun – Supreme military commander  Daimyo – Great Lords ruled the quasi- feudal system  Samurai - Military classed served the daimyo followed bushido (code of the warriors)  Peasants – farming class. The majority of Japan were farmers and were very proud about that  Merchants - considered even lower than the peasants because of the Confucian prejudice against money making • Tokugawa (a person) o Got named Shogun, throughout his reign he solidified the samurai system o Early tokugawa used foreign relations to solidify his legitimacy (since he wasn’t directly descended from the sun god  There was a question of whether they would submit to China or not, and thus diplomacy became very important  If they had submitted to China they would have excellent access to trade, you would be able to call themselves King, but you would have to give up your power o They decided not to join China  Instead took over Korea, and had them pay tribute to them.  Also expanded to take Ryuku Islands which paid tribute also  The Japanese limited trade with Europeans and only allowed the dutch into their territories and only at the port of Nagasaki o Japanese Porcelain  Became very popular in Europe  Japanese took over the Ming porcelain market after the fall of the Ming Dynasty  Asian porcelain heavily influenced European porcelain ← Japan as an Empire? • Failed attempt to invade Korea • Korea’s Admiral Yi defended Korea with Turtle Boats ← ← Jan 10: India and the East Ocean Trade ← Introduction: The Indian Ocean asdTrading Zone • Trade followed monsoon seasons • Arabs developed swift triangular flagged vessels • Southeast Asians developed large square vessels with square flags • The Portuguese arrived in 1498 changing everything • Wide array of luxury goods along with religious trade goods made the area a vibrant salt water crossroads • Traded in enslave labourers aswell ← II. The Splendour of the Mughal Empire • Rise of Islamic Mughal empire in India beginning in about 1500 • Mughal state thouroughly connected to outside world • Wealth and well – armed. It seemed invincible ← The Mughal Emperors • Babur o A timurid muslim warlord o “the tiger” o he brought about the Mughal empire which emerged as one of the most powerful seen yet in south east asia o Mughal = Mongol o Spent most time defeating afghan warlords o Charismatic leader o Used archery and horses • Akbar the Great o Interfaith and intercultural crossroads throughout India under his rule o Kept Persian as court language  Even still Mughals began to “Indianize”  Married hindus o He was eclectic so was interested in all aspects of different cultures o Created his own hybrid religion  Despite all this he clung to his core timurid values o By the end of his reign the Mughal empire stretched from Afghanistan to Bombay • Jahangir o Less ambitious than akbar o Was addicted to substances and ended up handing over much power to his wife Nur Jahan o His rule was culturally significant  Was a devoted patron of the arts and a poet  Took splendor of the courts to a new height  Wrote memoir “jahangirnama” was a very accurate account of everyday life. • Shan Jahan o An observant and tolerant muslim o Expanded Mughal territory significantly • Aurangzeb o A true holy warrior o Called for the return of orthodoxy and elimination of unauthorized practices o Religious fervor major force in Mughal expansion ← Economic importance of Mughal empire • Europeans wanted their commodities such as pepper, diamonds, in return for precious metals • The influx of money did not lead to commercialization but rather increased splendor of the court • ← III. Southeast Asia as a Regional Economy • The chinese left a void with their retreat from the Indian Ocean that the Europeans were happy to fill • Terms: Eurocentric, Sinocentric, Java, Prof Hui Kian Kwee, Fujian, Guangdong ← IV. Europeans Move into the Spice Trade ← Portuguese • Arrived in 1498 • Disrupted valuable balance between east Africa, and trade in the indian ocean • They couldn’t offer the people anything valuable so instead used force • The imposed monopolies on certain items and valuable trade posts o Force techniques effective in India • Ports: • Goa o A stronghold from which they monopolized regional and export trade • Meleka o A former fishing village which was a fine natural harbor. It had a strategic location. o Fell to the Portuguese in 1511 o Fell to dutch in 1641 • The Portuguese conquistadors were focused on developing strategic sites for fortified trading posts o Called feitorias o Resembled those in Africa o Competition for these were fierce • The Portuguese wanted to monopolize all trade in the Indian Ocean o This plan was never realized • Religious mission o To spread roman Catholicism to east Africa o Failed miserably o Small Christian communities formed at ports and strongholds like Goa • The India Voyage (Carreira Da India) o Became legendary in Portuguese culture o A triumphant poem called The Lusiads became portugals national epic about the spice trade • By late 16 century Portuguese monopolies were dwindling ← The Dutch East India Company (VOC) • Only the dutch came close to establishing a genuine indian ocean empire • Collapse of the Mughals left a power vacuum for Europeans to conquer large land masses and to plant colonies • The VOC established 1602 • Its aim was to displace the Portuguese as europes main supplier of spices • Biggest achievement was the conquering of Java (Jakerta) o A vast base for the dutch in Indonesia • They fully got rid of the portuguese from Goa • Monopolistic mentality of contemporary Europe is what drove dutch aggression • Wanted absolute control • VOC concentrated on monopolizing spices ← The English East India Company • Founded 1600 2 years earlier • Also used force to displace Portuguese in many key places • Progress was slow and uneven • Exported spices and gems from modest fort at Surat ← ← V. Conclusion: Spices and the World ← ← Economy ← Jan 15: Rise of the Russian Empire(syl)/ Eurasian Empires (lec) ← Introduction to Eurasia/asia/ east asia • Eurasia is the entire continent of China to the western border of france –ish • Asia means right side and half of east asia, and south asia • Eurasia dominated by large empires who conflict and and competed with each other for territory and power ← Ottoman Empire 1300-1922 • Power peaked in 1600 • Was started by Osman o Was a Turk who led nomadic raiders against the byzantine empire o Began to conquer Antatolia • In 1453 Osman took Constantinople which effectively ended the Christian rule in the east • This also ended the byzantine empire • They didn’t sack the capital, he restored it and renamed it “Istanbul” • Converted the Hagia Sophia cathedral into a mosque • Continued expanding, and took Egypt, north Africa, and ended up controlling the entire Arab world • Had good access to major waterways • Maintaining the Empire o Combined the Greek and Latin civic culture, and the Arab administrative/ military techniques o The sultan reigned as the Khan following the tradition Mongol tradition o They were very religiously tolerant o Used exogamy (the practice of marrying outside of family) to solidify political marriages alliances o However they did not tolerate the shi’ite islam tradition o Extraterritoriality: a practice in which the ottomans let you get tried by your own law, not local imperial government o The Ottomans did not always require their conquered territories to convert to their religion o But later they began to emphasize Islam as being the one true religion o Local merchants helped with the trade by using their local native routes rather than imperial ones  In this way the ottomans put their diversity to work for the empire o The administration made use of concubines: any time a concubine had child it could be an heir  Thus there would be no rivalry in terms of succession  No two sons had the same mother so no room for factions or alliances ← Safavid Dynasty 1501-1722 • Modern day Iran and partially Iraq • Safavid was established on a religious basis, it had some muslim and Asian influences • Qizilbus ‘redhat’ warrior groups believed in the coming of the messiah • Twelver shi’ism the idea that the 12 follower of Mohammad will return and bring peace Russia • Mongols Tatar Yoke – rather small territory o The mongols left Russians with their culture ← Russia After Mongols • IVAN III (the great) tsar o Laid claim to be an emperor o Married the neice of the byzantine empire: “taking over byzantine” • Ivan IV (the terrible) Ivan Grozny o Used the cosacks: (groups of russian peasants who became skilled at fighting on horseback) o The boyars: (Russian hereditary nobles – the nobles were given land as the empire expanded) • In 1552 they conquered Kazan which then made them a multi- ethnic empire • Russia was very poor even though it was an empire. • It didn’t impose a different culture on it’s conquered peoples • The Romanov family expanded territory, it repelled invaders, and established stability • Peter the Great (1682-1725) turned is sights westward and moved the capital of the empire to St. Petersburg which was facing out towards the west o He considered St. Petersburg his ‘window on the west’ o Peter also improved the army and the navy. He made nobles wear western style dress, and allowed women to mix in with men in society o ← ← Jan 17: Venice and the Mediterranean ← Venice • Major trade centre • European city but major trade exchange between Europe and the ottoman empire • 1300-1797 it was a venetian empire • one of the two maritime powers during the time (the other was genova) o together they dominated trade • ruled by Doge (duke) during the empire. It was no democratic even thought there were elected bodies • All of the nobles of the empire were listed in ‘the golden book’. If you were in the book then you were allowed to run for politics. People who could be elected were only noble – so not strictly a democracy. This was done to limit the politicians. ← Naval Power • Lots of ships to maintain power • Venecian galley: a common ship used to ram other ships. The technology of cannons and guns came later • 15 century cannon pretty useless- it was more of a psychological tactic • the venetians were so efficient they could make a galley in a single day Black Sea Trade • traded in people • there is a slave trade in the east during this time • slave trade reappeared in the 13 century • If the slave was not Christian – then it was okay to buy it • Slaves were often white skinned coming from the Balkans • For use in cities mostly, and richer households • The slave trade was abolished in 1800 • White women highly prized as slaves • The fall of Constantinople limited slave traders access, because the ottomans blocked them ← Venice & Constantinople • Rivals • Shared seaways and borders • Venetians saw ottomans as “Turks” • Constantinople fell to the ottomans in 1453 o This cut off europes access to the east o Ottoman stopped the trade and travel through the convenient sea-routes • At war o Ottoman had many coastal areas, because of this they had to have a large navy o In response Venice expanded their naval fleet o Venetians attacked the Ottoman in alliance with other Europeans, at battle of Lepanto the ottoman empire naval fleet was defeated. Despite this victory it didn’t matter because venice was already in decline ← Diplomatic exchanges • The war between ottoman and venice didn’t get in the way of their trade • Venetian embassy was established o The ambassador was responsible for daily life of venetians • Dragomans o Subjects of the ottoman, paid by venetians, also employed in sultans court, and in venice  ← Jan 22: Early Modern Europe ← Early Modern Europe ← Faith, War, and Money ← Emerging nations, emerging empires ← Europe in 1453 ← -population upswing, gradual growth, wider explanations, moveable press, ← 1750, age of revolutions: modern european countries formed, centralized, absolutist ← government, strong control, under national rule ← -divisions of religion, economic competition, stocks and commerce, Benjamin ← franklin: lightening electricity, 15 ← th ← century Europe different from modern map ← -holy roman empire: different selected states, one family got in charge to be holy ← roman emperor and controlled it, hafbergs, major political noble family ← -how did transformation happen? ← Faith, war, money ← Faith-Religious Transformations ← Early modern nations made use of rel trans. As they attempted to maintain authrotiy ← and expand and maintain authority. Came out of genuine change as collective level ← Protestant Reformation: church obviously corruption ← -Erasmus, dutch scholar, trying to reform church from within, various monarchs, ← religious heredetical movements, most wanted to reform catholic church but ← reformation lead to different branches, dated from 1517 ← Martin Luther: family of minors, peasant-lower class, indulgences ← Ninety-five theses: print document, wide circulation, powerful protector in nobility ← The Counter-reformation (Catholic) Council of Trent (1545-1563) ← -meeting, got rid of indulgences, education of priests, ← Ignatius Loyola: great travellers, more aggressive, efficient, powerful ← Lutheran, Calvinist, Anglican ← -persecutions, inquisitions, witch hunts, trials ← Wars ← -wars of religion ← thirty years war 1618, central Europe ← -religious intolerance, defenestration of prague, throwing out the window ← -disease, famine, productivity ← Treaty of Westphalia 1648: new geographical boundaries, eliminate religious ← divison, end wars in holy roman empire ← Constiutonalism, and absolutism ← Money: ← Population, agriculture, industry ← -population numbers in recovery, more labourers available more land to feed, ← -resources flooding into Europe from south America ← mercantilism: government authority linked to national security ← -joined stocks ← price revolution, BEIC, VOC, more wealth ← ← Jan 24: Indigenous Empires in the Americas ← Indigenous Empires in the Americas ← Mississipian Cultures: Shared Networks ← c.1000-c.1600 ← sources archaeological ← live in settle communities, high pop density, maze corn, squash, beans, complex ← hierarchal structure, religious and political power in elite ← maintaining fertility of land, sun god ← Cahokia, largest precolombian town, not empires ← Aztec/Mexica Empire: War and Tribute ← -married elite women, formed strong alliances, settled in tenochitlan -power, more territory ← ← Triple Alliance (Texcoco, Tlacopan), established a tributary state ← By 1500, controlled full territory, by 1502 they dominated, hierarchal, complex tech, ← water systems, capital city swampy area, settlements had high pop. Density, ← craftsmanship ← -gods sustained natural cycle of universe, required sacrifice, big theme ← -war captives, most presitigious activity ← -more written sources, written at time of Spanish conquest, factorial ← The Inca Empire: Expansion and Administration ← Origins: small pastoral tribe ← Four main regions, provinces, left local adm structures in place when they ← conquered but required sons to go to capital and learn language ← ← ← Jan 29: Spanish expansion and Conquests in the Americas ← Introduction: First Impression ← Chapter 17 and 22 ← 1492-1650 ce. • A lot happens in this period ← Empire and Expansion: Spanish Objectives ← Motivations to explore • God, glory, and gold • Especially religion, catholocism • Military motivations: defensive or offensive • Constant warfare in early modern Europe – spills out into other motivations in building empires ← Conquistadors and Conversions • Conquerors a new occupation in the world for men • Even if unsuccessful you would at least have an adventure • New how to exploit local alliances – to divide and conquer • By making friends they could undermine the authority of the people in power ← Cortes, the Aztecs and la malinche • Hernan cortes 1458-1547 • Governor appointed him to lead expedition to yucatan peninsula • But revoked permission, cortes ignored and went anyway • Reached the Aztecs • Capital of Aztec was tenochitlan under the emperor mectezuma • Overthrew the Aztec empire! Even though they had welcomed the Spanish • The conquered nations of the Aztecs help to overthrow Aztec empire. • La Malinche o Indigenous woman who served as interpretor and political advisor to cortes o Was native to a clan conquered by Aztecs o Was a slave because born under a bad sign – so sent to slave mercants o Became really important to interactions between Spanish and Aztecs ← Conversions • Many conversions • Devotion to the virgin mary ← Pizarro and the Incas • Francisco Pizarro 1475- 1541 • Captured the king of inca • Was offered a room full of gold to walk away. Agreed to it – took it – killed them anyway • Empire was already wrought with civil war- made it easier to conquer ← Florida and the southwest • 1513 ponce de leon claimed florida for spain ← Silver Sugar and Slaves • Various forms of slavery • Slaves used by Spanish for extraction of resources – primarily for extraction of resources • Potosi – lots of silver (a mine that grew into a large city) • Silver exported to Europe and to the philipines • In europe the silver flooded the market and caused inflation and currency devaluation • Contributed to unrest in Europe • Spanish used silver to buy silk tea textile and spices • Thus lots of silver ended up in china ← Columbian Exchange • Before 1492 the Americas were cut off from africa asia Europe – been that way for millions of years • When Europeans first started coming to the Americas – the two ecosytems came in contact with eachother • Massive consequences for humans in both situations • Weeds crops animals and germs exchanged ← Disease • The largest estimates of pre-Columbian population 33-50 million • After contact with europeans 3.5- 4 million people • Smallpox killed more than fighting ← Plants • Grapes, olive, wheat • Bananas coconuts sugar cane and citrus fruits • From America to the rest of the world - potato ← ← ← Jan 31: European Colonization in North America ← Introduction: Competition in the “New World” ← 1534-1750 • other European powers wanted to get into new world action – get in on gold and silver • mostly didn’t manage gold but found other good products like tobacco ← mercantilism • wealth is finite • france gains therefore spain loses – kinda crazy ← competition • more intense than in the indian ocean • pirates or privateers(government given a license to go out and attack ships) • wealth produced military power – thus fueled wars between Europeans ← New France: Fur and the Middle ground • Not middle kingodom(china) or middle passage (slave trade) it was the accomadations within an ecounter • Because they needed eachother • French traders often married native wives • They learned the languages (because thy needed to) • Some were adopted into a tribe • Participated in the rituals • Drew the natives into the global economy ← Jacques cartier was the first of the French explorers, but didn’t result in many settlements ← EARLY 1600 small settlements in acadia (now nova scotia) led by Champlain • Shipped over young women “les filles du roi” for the settlers ← New Netherland: Merchant traders • Dutch more interested in trade than in spreading religion ← Explorations • Henry Hudson 1607 1611 flourished • Led many of the explorations • Went all the way up to the Hudson in New York • Didn’t discover it, but was renamed for him ← Trade • Very involved with the dutch along the east coast ← Wampum • Beaded belts made out of quahog(clam with white shell with purple
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