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Dutch & Turtle.doc

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University of Toronto St. George

Cultures and Exchange Sunday, 8 December, y Imperial Culture and Foreign Relations in EastAsia Time Period 1500- 1750 Both China and Japan had a transition right around the 1600’s • Japan in 1800 • China in 1644 Introduction: Policies of Isolation inAsia • Many historians say that both Chinese and Japanese governments had definite policies of keeping out the foreigners and having no contact with the foreigners • Including what we know that with the Silk Roads and Marco Polo China was never completely isolated; a little more in this period but not completely, not as much as it was thought That approach is what many of us call Eurocentric because during this time China and Japan had fairly limited contact with Europe but they had plenty of contact with the rest of Asia • If you were European you thought they were isolated but if you were in the rest of the world you thought that they weren't (specifically other Asian countries) Thesis In the 1600s, China, Japan, and the rest of East Asia were not isolated from foreign contact. Historians sometimes characterize this as a period of isolation because of limited contact with Europe, but China and Japan both had extensive relations with other parts of East and Southeast Asia. • Eurocentric • View that china was isolated, they were not because they had contact with other East and South Asian countries The Glory of the Qing Empire Ch’ing: Qing spelt with a Q is also sometimes spelt Ch’ing, this is how linguist in the 18th and 19th century decided to spell it, had to do with linguistic theories We are started with the End of the Ming Dynasty End of the Ming Dynasty (restored Chinese rule after the Mongols) • Flourishing commercial culture • Time of literature and art • Traded a lot with the Spanish • Spanish were in the Philippines: one of the places that the Chinese were visiting • Traded with the Portuguese at port Macao • Exported porcelain, silk, paper, and other types of textiles and tapestry • They made lots of manufactured goods, things that the Chinese were specialist in making • To Europe via the Spanish via the Portuguese • Made some designs especially for export that would appeal the European market; made designs that would appeal to the European market • In exchange they took in silver, which the Spanish were mining from LatinAmerica By the 1600 Ming Dynasty started to suffer from internal weaknesses and external problems -End of the Ming Dynasty • Weakening of the Ming Dynasty • Internal and external problems • Started to experience famine: crops began to fail • There was an unusual cold snap around the world: small ice age • Environmental factors helped to weaken the Ming, made crops fail which caused a famine • In China if theres a famine its the job of the government to relive the famine by issuing emergency grain • If the Government cant manage to do that, those are signs that an empire is loosing its grip; it can no longer • Local governments could no longer provide relief • In China when you have a famine one of the things that people do is end up joining rebellion • The Ming was faced with a lot of internal rebellions The Manchu Conquest The Ming was also faced with an outside threat from the Manchus • The Manchus were nomadic people from the Northeast, the province is now Heilongjiang, Jilin • Faintly related to the Mongols • There were horseback riding warriors • Their military organization worked by banners; different colored flags • Their entire society was organized by military • Gradually began to invade Northern China and gradually began to take over the Ming Dynasty The Ch’ing Dynasty 1644-1911 • In 1644 the Ming Dynasty fell, but there were pockets of Ming resistance that remained especially in Southern China • People who loyalist wanted to overthrow the foreigners identified themselves with pirates of Taiwan • In 1644 Manchus declared themselves the Ch’ing dynasty • Took on the Chinese name • Gradually over the next two and a half centuries they began to take on Chinese attribute( i.e Chinese system of government) • Initially tried to maintain their culture • Even though the kept the Chinese bureaucracy system, the tried to keep a distinct culture • Banned intermarriage with the Chinese; way to keep bloodline pure Kept up archery and hunting: even if you lived in the city you had to learn how to • hunt • Kept language: faintly related to Mongolian • Kept religion: Shamanistic religion • Kept a separate homeland: Han Chinese were not allowed into Manchu homelands Imperial Expansionism • Ch’ing was an empire in the empire in the true sense • Went out and conjured outlining areas • Conquered people with different cultures, nationalities, and religion • Absorbed them all into one large governmental structure Expanded frontiers into Xinjiang • Xinjiang was huge was a new territory with a largely Muslim population • Now conquering or ruling an alien population with a very different religion Kept that as sort of a frontier, with military garrisons, didn't send a lot of Manchus or Han • Chinese civilians to settle, so it was really a separate place • Allowed Muslim religion, food, culture and customs to remain: Partly because • The region was very valuable for trade • They had copper, precious stones, fine wool, Jade and Gold • Ch’ing is now a multiethnic empire; now ruling people with lots of different religions, people, and culture Cultural flowering and Imperial Prestige The Emperor Qianlong was a great Patron painters, paleographers, and literary ( writers) people of all kinds • Sponsored an enormous anthology of classical Chinese philosophy, history, and literature • All of the important texts were combined to this one enormous volume • It took ten years to compile it, and it was thirty six thousand manuscript lines All Chinese scholarships were collected in one place; anything that wasn't in it didn't count • The emperor also patronized Jesuit scholars • The Jesuits were an order Catholicism of that were being sent to propagate Catholicism throughout the world • Some had made their way to China and found themselves in the Chinese capital • The emperor tolerated and welcomed them because they present themselves as scholars and not missionaries • They were very good at math, astronomy, and science • The Chinese admired their knowledge and decided that they could learn from them • They were also good architects and the emperor had them build his summer palace called the Yuanmingyuan • For along time they were tolerated until they began to argue amongst themselves about the correct theology, then they became socially troublesome because of the conversion question, then the empire finally kicked them out • During this period, and partly because of the Jesuits sending back to home courts in mainly France, Europeans had fairly good information about the Chinese • Europeans admired chinese culture and their emphasis of scholarship, literature, and art • Compared emperor to Louis XIV ( the sun King of France) Compared palace to Versailles • • Louis XIV was also a Patron of literature and art • Admired what they understand of Chinese culture in that social power came f
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