Korea and Imperialism
Unyo-kan incident: happened in 1895 September when few sailors were fired upon when
seeking water and provisions in Korea. Japan wanted an apology but Korea refused so this led
to a war which Japan won and later created a Kanghwa treaty. This treaty was to make Korea
and independent state and open 3 ports in Japan and extraterritoriality of Japanese citizens
1894: The Tonghak Rebellion: Korea asked china for help to help improve their conditions for
the poor and toleration for their religion. So China sent out 3,000 troops which violated the treaty
of Taijin convention with Japan so Japan and China had the Sino-Japanese war which Japan
won, and asked China to make Korea an independent state, and signed a commercial treaty
with Japan, the same treaty they had to sign with the Westerners
The Triple Intervention (1895): France, Germany and Russia wanted Japan to give up the
Liaodong peninsula and return it back to China, in hopes of building a railway to China. Japan
eventually gave up and said their troops will be leaving the peninsula in December 1895. China
even gave Japan an indemnity of 1.12 million kg of silver. Later, Russia had the peninsula for
lease for 25 years to build a railway from Harbin to Port Arthur
March First Movement (1919): Japan makes Korea part of its colony. This includes that
Koreans in school must have Japanese textbooks, Japanese names are encouraged and make
Japanese a primary language learned in Korean schools. Also, many rice products from Korea
were shipped to Japan, this helps economy in Japan
End of Chinese Empire
The Boxer Rebellion (until 1900): The Boxers were Righteous and Harmonious Fists who
were taught martial arts weapon less. Empress Cixi said she was fore it and permits imperial
troops to help them. The boxers destroyed churches and anything Christian related because
Christianity was seen as social disruptive. They said Christians were the reason for the Taiping
Rebellion (war that changed the Qing Dynasty into more western traditions when Christianity
was brought in)
Dr. Frank J. Goodnow (early 1900s): He argued that a constitutional monarchy suits China
more because it is a source of national strength like Japan and Britain. There were also many
people in China who were anti-monarch
Period of Warlords
May 4 Movement: This was the beginning of communism for China in 1919 by Li Dazhao and
Chen Duxiu. Society organized without private property, no private ownership by means of
production allowed, and each individual had to work according to their capacity received and
their needs. Communism in China was to be anti-Western, scientific, anti-imperialist and
successful. Blood League (1930s): Created terrorism in Japan when a group of young peasants who took
an oath to eliminate public figures that they believe betrayed their country or internationally, or
having enriched themselves at the expense of peasants and farmers.
The Northern Expedition (1926-1927): This was a Nationalists Party campaign to subdue the
warlords in China. The Chinese National bankers and industries support national but not social
“Green Gang” supports the Nationalists. The Green gang was a society involved in organized
crime in Shanghai before 1949. In 1920s and 1930s they were exploited by business and
Guomindang to control workers strike in CCP.
New Life Movement: This was a Nationalist campaign in 1934 launched by Chiang Kai-shek. It
was to renew Confucius and traditional Chinese values.
Second World War in EA
Hideki Tōjō: In 1941 he was appointed Prime Minister of Japan. In November 1941, Japan
withdrew from Indo-China and most of other parts in China. Made agreement in principle to free
trade in Asia, but Washington dismisses the proposal that concessions in Japan would
endanger US relations with Britain, Holland, China and Australia.
Attack on Pearl Harbour (1941): This was a victory war by Japan that attacked Hawaii and the
US. Hong Kong surrenders. So later, during WWII, US bombed Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This
attack was to prevent US military fleet from interfering the Japan’s military actions.
Red Army (18 group army): They are communists who have a strong sense of their mission.
They are organized to supply food, organize and gather guerilla troops. They mobilized rural
population to wage guerrilla warfare. They stress common effort against Japanese.
Essay: Success of the communist (1982): They tried to win the support of their masses. They
practiced a Spartan style life close to the common people. Instead of promising reform right
after another, they implemented one change right after another.
The Hundred Flowers Campaign (1956-1957): Mao asked people ti criticize the government
and many ideas came in to improve the government. The flowers blooming at schools in China
were for promoting flourishing of the arts and progress in science. It is to enable a social culture
Civil War between Communist and Nationalist (1945-1949): Nationalists were recognized as
the legitimate government of China by Russia and Allies. They had 3 or 4 times as much men
as communist and more armaments. In the end Communists won by Mao Zedong as the leader
because they had a Spartan style of battling. In 1949, Mao declared China as the People’s
Republic of China
Marriage Reform (1950): “Woman hold up half of the sky” a quote by Mao saying that men and
women are equal and they take up half the population. Revolutionary young people must take
the lead to break with traditional concepts like, “men are superior and women inferior.” China since 1945
The Great Leap Forward (1958-1960): China caught up or surpassed British industrial capacity
in 15 years. Mao accepts responsibility for the Great leap and problems with communes. The
period of moderation follows the great leap.
Red Guards: In 1960s, the red guards attacked the “four olds”; customs, old habits, culture and
old thinking/ideology. They vandalized religious buildings such as bookstores, libraries and
churches. Their targets were to attack teachers, writers and anyone tainted by foreign
influence. Disbanded in 1968.
The Cold War: 1970s, China and US made trades so Americans can have powerful interests,
and China realize they need modernization and new technology. China needed technical help
to expand oil production and America has source for oil. Since the Korean War, US allowed
trades from China.
Responsibility System: During 1960s in China when farm families were given the area for
farming. They extended contract for farms from 1 year to 15 years. Government sets quotas for
crops and the farmers must grow and sell the required quotas for fixed price. Agriculture tripled
after 1970s until the 80s.
Student Unrest: A group around 3,000 Chinese students stage a hunger strike in 1986