great history notes

52 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Barbara Todd

History Exam Outline Italian Unification NotesNapoleons invasion of ItalyBefore Napoleon invaded Italy Italy was a very week state and was mostly ruled by foreign dictators Also many parts or states as Italy was divided into states that were each governed by different people were under direct influence of the Austrian empire In 1796 Napoleon successfully invaded and took power of Italy He fought off all the local rulers and the Austrians to gain control of the peninsula In 1798 Napoleon divided Italy into just four and later four states instead of the previous number All the new states were ruled either by napoleon or by his family Viceroy a ruler exercising authority on behalf of a queen or kingLife under French rule It is unclear and there is a lot of historiography on the fact of how was life under French rule Some say life got worse as Napoleon used a lot of Italian soldiers in his French army and imposed conscription over Italian men He also taxed the people to fund his army 60 of the money collected in Italy was used for the French army The church definitely didnt enjoy French rule for many reasons the pope lost his political power pope was imprisoned land was sold off by the French many monasteries were closed by the French The wealthy class suffered and benefited from French rule some families were ruined but some benefited from all the church land they bought Napoleon brought about many economical and business advantages External and internal trade barriers were simplified Tax collection was organized roads were built weights and measures were standardized code napoleon a set of civil laws introduced as the national law street lighting occurred vaccination was improved industry was improved also it was very important that governments were introduced in each state and many men gained experience from the parliaments Also we must say that the Italians absorbed French new ideals of liberty and freedom The people understood that men should be citizens of state rather than the subjects of a king The life for peasants was just as bad as it was before they starved and lived in horrible conditions as before But these peasants usually didnt care who was the ruler of their land all they wanted was survival It could also be said that French rule could have started a wave of nationalism in Italy between the Italians that hated French rule Post Napoleon EraIn 1815 French rule of Italy came to an end as Napoleon was defeatedAt the congress of Vienna it was decided that French land be restored to the states of pre Napoleonic time Metternich was the ruler of the Austrians at the time of Napoleon He was a key figure in the congress of Vienna where he claimed that in order to avoid another French invasion of Italy Austria had to have control of most of Italy Metternich didnt want a united Italy and wanted power for Austria he claimed Italian affairs do not exist as it was true there was no Italy just a bunch of states So Italy was once again divided and the old ruling families returned to rule with AustriaLife under the restored monarchsReactionary Favoring a return to an old political condition and being opposed to political progress Revisionist Historians Those who disagree with the generally accepted historical interpretations and who argue against them It is believed that there were many revolutions and disturbances by Italians striving for a united Italy but all these revolutions were brutally stopped However some historians say this is not true as there were very few disturbances and that the government controlled everything through secret police like every other European government These historians also argue that these monarch states were not reactionary in Tuscany Ferdinand was no reactionary he improved the state by improving health and education Also in Parma the duchess also favored change for the better as she got rid of the code napoleon However the other states were indeed backward as when the old families returned they introduced the old pre Napoleonic laws and even destroyed parks street lights roadsSo basically in conclusion life under the restored monarchs was only progressive and good in Tuscany and Parma while life in Piedmont Modena Naples and the Papal States was reactionary and bad NationalismAfter Napoleon there was a growth in the national feeling many started studying Italian history as they saw it more interesting with more culture Also language become closer to one and the languages spoken in the states were just different dialects There were many revolutions at this time the three key one were in 18201 18312 18489 the first two failed and they were moderate protests against oppressive rule rather than an attempt of unification The revolution in 48 was more successful as the people managed to unite some states until the mighty French and Austrian armies destroyed them Also there was an aspect of Italian unification in this revolution After this revolution people understood that they were going to need more help at overcoming the Austrians Finally in 1859 piedmont with help from Napoleon 3 defeated the Austrians and a kingdom of northern Italy was formed After that the Italians in the north easily drove out the Austrian rulers of the southern states and united them to Italy however many people thought that the southern states were backward and not wanted in the nation The Kingdom of Italy was formed in 1861 And more states joined the kingdom like Rome in 1866 The Risorgimento was known as the new rebirth of Italy Many historians however are skeptical of the unification as they see it happening by chance with not a lot of nationalism involved See text book for more details in this debateContingent means subject to chance and to the effects of the unforeseen just like some historians say the unification was weak succeeded by foreign help hostility of Cavour and garibaldi and not their friendship Italian PoliticsThe restored monarchs in Italy were challenged by mainly three political groups Liberals favored a constitutional monarchy were against a republican democracy Wanted to use democratic ways to gain powerRadicals were much more extreme in their views wanted to use violence to gain power fought for social reforms and better distribution of wealth Nationalist believed that the Italian nation deserved a single state Both liberals and radicals wanted unificationAustria of coarse opposed all these views for unification
More Less

Related notes for HIS102Y1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.