history exam study-2.rtf

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University of Toronto St. George
Vasilis Dimitriadis

Bismarck and German Unification, Crimean War, Napoleon III failures against Germany, World War II note: The dominance of France from the 1790s to the early 1810s emphasized the need to attempt to construct a system which would prevent such a destructive force emerging Crimean War: (connect to BOP) The Crimean War is an example of when disrupting or fear of disrupting a balance of power, states come together to re-establish it. The Crimean War involved Napoleon asking for keys (so they can participate diplomatically and earn a position of strength) of Holy Place and Ottoman Empire agreed. Russia said if the Ottoman Empire collapsed, they would take over. France and England come in to help as anti Russian of fear for Russian domination. Outcome of the Crimean War, how it changed the Intl' System: - the collapse of the Vienna Settlement (system that had enabled Austria, Britain, France, Prussia, and Russia for three decades) - Russia lost the war and the myth of Russian might - the shock of defeat for Russia lead to Tsar Alexander II to improve industrialization and internal reforms - France became the dominant military land power in Europe, but that was temporary for when the situation got turned over by Prussia (germany) in 1870-1871 - Crimean War lay foundations for two new powerful states to emerge- Germany and italy - Six-power European System that lead to world war 1 (britain couldn't balance) --> thus crimean war brought end to vienna settlement and brought the beginning of a new system in europe - also: end of Russian power, so now that the power was humbled, balance of power was being brought Bismarck foreign policy and achievements: Bismarck focused on achieving peace and stability in Europe. Bismarck believed there would be many advantages to a unification but realized would have to overcome Austria and France. Denmark challenged two German states. Bismarck offered Austria to work together to preserve International order. Balance of power was in the mind of Austrians--> because they complied out of fear of Prussian dominance in control of Germany. Defeat for Denmark came in 1864. - base of german unification: - north german confederation of 1867, reviewed every 3 years and welcomed new states --> ensured the growth of Germany (states between south of the Main River - the north german confed had two compromises: 1) recognize the King of Prussiaas the emperor of Germany (but each state could govern freely) and 2) a constitution that had a representative body Bismarck made policies and agreements such as approaching Napoleon for neutrality, Italy would join war. Bismarck first demonstrated his only desire for peace when the road to Vienna was open, but just wanted a free hand to German confederation. There were no humiliation/no territorial losses for Austria. Austria and Russia started the Three Emperors Alliance (find what year it happened first), but when Russia wanted to protect the Balkans, European states (such as England) wanted to take back the land --> caused the three emperors alliance to fall. In order to repair the damage and stay in the majority, Bismarck made an alliance with Austria (dunno if it's important) REVIEW ESSAY ON MAKING OF CONFEDERATION AND LONG TERM ACHIEVEMENTS (INTRO PARAGRAPH, 1ST PARAGRAPH, 3RD PARAGRAPH) Thus targeted Austria and Russia to make an alliance. Bismarck wanted to make sure Austria didn't get attacked by Russia (they were dealing with power struggles in the Balkans). Bismarck believed it was easier to maintain control of states (Russia) when there were agreements and alliances. Russia agreed out of fear of isolation. 1881--> 3 emperors alliance. This was a great achievement for Bismarck because of the Russia and Austria conflict. Bismarck strongly believed to be in the majority was key (3 out of 5 great powers in Europe). Alliances gave Bismarck more control because no war and leaves France in isolation. March 1887, Mediterranean Alliance was formed between Italy, Britain and Prussia. Russia then proposed an alliance with germany in June 1887 (Reinsurance Treaty). Both states promised to stay neutral (Prussia was scared, having France in mind- Russia was in fear of Prussia + Brits). Long term trends of German strength caused by the unification: 1) france never regained their strong status after the unification of Germany 2) Triple Alliance of Italy, Prussia, Austria lasted up to 30 years (helped them in world war I) 3) Germany's economy boosted - rapid growth in population (caused by unified states coming together) - the booming economy led to expanding and industrializing economy - less agriculture, more moving to urban places for industries --> germany became a leading industry centre How German Unification affected the balance of power/how German Unification demonstrated statecraft > strategy - German Unification demonstrated a balance of power and how it brought peacebecause no major wars (all short lived) were brought to conclusions quickly by diplomacy and alliances ex: diplomacy --> Franco-Prussian war in 1870 was ended quickly because France had no allies to fight the war with- Germany had many allies through diplomacy ex: alliances --> The Three Emperors Alliance in 1881 brought the possibility of a Austro-Russian war to an end - Germany's use of statecraft over strategy allowed Germany to become the strongest force in Europe (reasons why: alliances, french isolation, diplomacy) French mistakes during the German Unification: 1) Napoleon was sure that Austria would win in the war vs. Prussia in 1867 --> believed they would benefit by offering to remain neutral and they would be awarded when Austria won 2) Napoleon wanted rewards for remaining neutral, such as Belgium and Luxembourg. Bismarck couldn't guarantee it because they weren't his land- so asked him to put it in writing. Bismarck warned the European states that Napoleon was looking to gain more territory --> encouraged the isolation of France (Bismarck's foreign policy circled around anti-territorial gains) 3) Because of the Luxembourg Crisis, not gaining territory after the Austro-Prussian war in 1667, losing the throne of Queen isabella II of Spain (ended the Bourbon dynasty and replaced by Leopold, a German) - Napoleon declared war on Prussia in 1870 with no diplomatic support. They miscalculated the war, and lost badly in the same year. Alsace-Lorraine was taken from them. The consequences of the war were: humiliation, further emphasis on isolating France (because they showed their aims for a hegemony), and War in Sight Crisis - War in Sight Crisis: Germans forbade selling horses, France had to pay the reparations of the war and until then- Germany kept Alsace-Lorraine, lost their pride. 4) main point: the french were not able to defeat the german unification because of the german focus on diplomacy. Before the Franco-Prussian war in 1970, France tried to make allies because they were isolated- but: Austria already had an alliance with Germany (that promised peace and stability) and Bavaria was too afraid to make an alliance with France because they didn't want to be left in isolati
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