Europe 1815.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Vasilis Dimitriadis

Europe 1815-1876 - Russia signed a mutual pact that Russia would defend Ottoman Empire if Egyptians claimed Congress of Vienna (1815) war - The British started to fear Russia - Most controversial subject was polish-saxon question - They had a huge army : people thought they were stronger than they actually were - During the Congress of Vienna, Russia and Prussia made a deal. - Thought it was Russias attempt to control the - Prussia would support Russia's bid for Poland if Ottoman Empire - A lot of anti-russian press: portrayed Russians as Russia would support Prussia's bid for Saxony. - Metternich (Austria) and Castlereagh (Britain) non-european, and barbaric. feared Russia would become too powerful and 1824 ruin the balance of power in Europe - King Louis XVIII was replaced by Charles X Holy Alliance ( Grand Alliance) - Charles X was disliked greatly by the public - His policies antagonized the nation ( he made - WHO ? Russia, Austria, Prussia at the Congress of Vienna reactionary policies but the public was used to liberal and republican reforms ) - Purpose ? Instilling Christian values of charity and peace in Euro pol life. Bu in practise 1830 Metternich used it as a cover to prevent revolutionary influence esp from the French July Ordinance from entering these nations. - 1 Dissolved Chamber of Deputies - Against democracy, revolution and secularism. - 2 Censored the press The Eastern Question - 3 Took voting rights away from bourgeoisie - 4 Called for new election excluding bourgeoisie - Problem of Euro territory controlled by - Led to a revolution in France decaying Otto Empire. - Charles X was disposed, new King installed - Everyone hoped to profit from the - Revolution didnt do much, just prevented disintegration of Ottoman Empire because of rights of bourgeoisie from being trampled their rival imperialistic interests. - The straits were a major geographic advantage Revolutions of 1830 to whom ever had access to it. A major military - Protests against particular aspects of the peace and diplomatic focal point of the E.Q. Greek War of Independence (1822) settlement of 1814-1815 - Was an old order, incapable of satisfying Proclaim a republic and independence from Otto. Turks invade Greece, Russia aspirations of people of Europe - Vienna Agreement was made under the declares war on Turkey (1823). Greece is also aided by France and Britain who assumption that states existed on the basis of were afraid of the Russian expansion in dynastic rights and binding treaties - However, nationalists and liberalists believed the Balkans so decided to join in to stop it. Anglo-French-Russian navy smashed states owed their existence to the will for the people. Turkish fleet. War ends and Turks finally recognize Greek Independence (1829). Significance of the July Revolution RUSSIA WAS granted commercial rights in OTTO empire. - Change in political climate : resulted in - Crisis when muhammet Ali tried to invade Syria CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY- Set the revolutionary motion, rippled through - Hungary was taken back by Austria under Europe : Belgium and Poland. Russian Tsar Nicholas and the Austrian - Polish rebellion was quickly cushed by Czar government was restored to its original Nicholas of Russia position. - Belgium (1839) : independent state, important strategic location: held France back Berlin - Britain said if anyone invades, the would - The Middle class intelligentsia had become intervene (WWI) more conscience and self aware of their role in society and therefore wanted representation from the autocratic princes The Revolutions of 1848 - Demonstrators and the army clashed. Streets were barricaded, until Frederick Wilhelm VI France removed troops and appointed liberal ministers - outbreak of mobs, unruly Paris mob frightened (who were powerless.) The mob though, which was mainly made up of dissatisfied peasants Louis Phillippe into abdicating - socialist programs were passed and working class, quickly left the revolution to the political thinking middle classes - New constitution. - Although the Parliament Germany was given in - Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, Napoleon Is nephew was elected, said his uncle was a liberal 1849 did not last long, it gave the liberal thinkers among the revolutionaries the and he is also a liberal. Was elected because of his name. incentive to look for more Power , a German Culture and Identity - Interested in establishing order, an
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