Detailed notes on the Peace of Westphalia

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Alison Smith

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A swift and sure peace: the Peace of Westphalia 1643 - 1648 16:10 Initiated by the Pope Urban VIII (1623 1644). Saw it as his responsibility to end the shedding of Christian blood Since 1634 urged France, Spain and the Holy Roman Empire to resolve their differences as he feared that the Thirty Years War (1618 1648) would allow the Ottoman Turks to seize Christian territory. Both before and during the Congress of Westphalia, the idea of uniting the Christian powers and launching a new crusade against the Ottomans never progressed. Overtime, Christendom was no longer uniformly Catholic. Sweden, Dutch Republic, several German principalities Protestant participants in the war and did not recognise the popes authority. Popes and their representatives not only refused to meet with Protestant ambassadors in any official capacity but declined to negotiate in the same place where the Protestant envoys had assembled the Protestant city of Osnabruck. All-Catholic Congress met in the Catholic city of Cologne. The papal envoys and those of other Catholic powers converged on the Catholic city of Munster, 30 miles away. The two parallel series of negotiations collectively known as the Congress of Westphalia by far, the largest as well as the longest lived peace conference held to that date. 176 plenipotentiaries representin
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