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HIS109Y1 Semester 2 Exam Notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Kenneth Bartlett

INDUSTRIALIZATION’S EFFECT OF LIFE ECONOMY -emergence of capitalism and factory system -Malthus’s trap broken for 1st time -pop, wages, resources kept growing Economy stopped relying on wood and relied on coal and stuff for e.g. -switch from substincence to profit based farming -machines replace human effort = productivity and wages go up -factory system + high population = low wages -Improved agriculture = improved health -bleach improved sanitation -population exploded WORKING CLASS -small farmers expelled by agricultural revolution and forced to go work in city -surplus food = lots of babies = lots of cheap labour -city workers for first time didn’t have familial connections to jobs (note = like captain swing) -many rural farmers continued to live on substinence (they weren’t really part of industrialized society)] -industrialization improved communication = rural ppl learn about opprotuntiires in cites and govt can interfere in peasant life through taxation and conscription -farmers like the fictional captain swing had to compete with agricultural capitlaIsts and many farmers revolted -city was filled with pollution, disease, crime, alcoholism, unemployment, etc… -paternalistic landlord tenant relationship over, now its based on money -sewing machines enabled making lots of clothes at one which let poor follow fashion MIDDLE CLASS AND ARISTOCRACY -industrilaization produced new and powerful middle class -middle class grew in influence, numbers, wealth and became the dominant culture -19th century culture = Victorian, capitalism, hard work, take care of self and family, being aloof to commoners CLASS CONCIOUSNESS AND CONFLICT -no more estates and privileges -industrialization produced the middle and working class -workers were ok with factories but artisans were mad -horrible working conditions + social segregation = workers develop class consciousness -middle class worked whereas nobility/aristocracy didn’t work and got rich off of inheritances and being paid rent -middle and upper class hate each other (brophy document = hard work deserves success and is moral) -middle class thought the workers were lazy (brophy document says to harass workers to make them work) and had low view of workers, this justified to them cruel treatment of workers -although middle class used charity and religiosity to help the poor -middle class saw workers as moral cripples and undisciplined -middle class didn’t give high wages to workers as thought workers will just drink it away -classes polarized like never before in euro history SOCIAL MOBILITY -note that the French Revolution made “careers open to talent” -social class did away with privilege and gave ppl some social mobility -ppl had to take risks of borrowing money and also had to find business partners as hardly anyone could afford to start a business on their own, you could get rich by doing this or fail -factrories and banks liked working with investors with smaller amounts of money cause ppl weho have mad money tend to interfere with projects too much = lower middle class ppl could join the dominant class for first time -ppl could become investors and receive dividends -power of money did away with old aristocracy -but it was very hard for a worker’s child to get education and become middle class -lower middle class had lots of rags to riches stories -fictional poor boy Samuel smiles became captain of industry (although in reality I don’t poor ppl could actually get rich at the time) THE FAMILY -fam was both a business arrangement (e.g. father in law hooks u up with business connections) and also a counterpoint to rapidly changing world, it’s continuity and tradition -marriage was for championship and sharing responsibilities and not for aristocratic dynasties -workers’s kids were little workers and aristocrat’s kids were little aristocrats, middle class created the concept of childhood: a time to be educated and learn values -middle class men became money makers and middle class women stayed home to raise kids and educate them WOMEN -note that napoleon code theoretically promised women right to take out will and to have gender equality to a degree -middle class women stayed in home and were obedient to husband -middle class men and women were seen as scientifically different (due to the separation of their obligations I m guessing). For e.g. it was thought that men should have sexual passion but women shouldn’t -working class women on the other hand worked and took care of the household -ideas about jobs for working class women shifted and texture workers for e.g. preferred women as they were docile and had small hands -due to economic vulnerability and lack of social control in cities a lot of worker women prostituted and had illegitimate kids INDUSTRILAIZATION’S EFFECT ON EUROPEAN STATES GROWTH OF THE EUROPEAN STATE -cities= rise of water transport, sewage, civic gov’t, police, transportation, etc… in late industrialization, but in early industrialization politics had no models to follow and things were laissez faire and therefore crowded, miserable, dirty -more ppl participated in govt = rise of economic policy -britian and france placed restrictions on trade and had monopolies = gold and silver are coming in, never being exported -britain produced industrialization almost by chance, continental Europe did it by design -cont. Europe used govt policy, transport and commerce for substained industrial growth -contintal Europe used tariffs, incentives + education to promote industrialization -France and Prussia subsidezed private company railroad building -early industrialization was laissez faire -cities overcrowded and unhealthy = govts intrioduce policies to increase santitation and stop epidemics -ppl live in terrible conditions like crime, lack of water, etc… = govt has to step in and prevent revolutions through public health regulation, city planning, etc… (growth of state power) -Britain = working class integrated into nation’s political body but continental europe’s govts were hostile to worker’s rights and produced lots of opposition EUROPE’S DOMINATION OF OTHER CONTINENTS -industrializatipn created a world in need of new markets -europe took surplus to new world and also took the new world’s resources -increased cotton production in Europe = America needs to have slavery to feed britain’s cotton needs -colonization provided resources for industrialization -industrialization made import/export cheap and profitable so it caused colonization -e.g. steel production made travel of ppl and materials cheap Made western Europeans producers of manufactured goods and suppliers of raw amterials and buyers of the finished goods of the rest of the world -large areas of eastern Europe became, usually serf, agricultural areas that exported to the west all the time -lot of eastern European states such as Serbia formed the industrial periphery -made Egypt and others financially dependent on west -western European need for wheat made Canada and other places centers for wheat production -britian forced itish to live off of the potato and contributed to the irish potato famine (my idea = industrialization caused the growth of the state, not the congress of Vienna and the French revolution, ind. Made public policy necessary to prevent uprisings, it was laissez faire before that) IMPERIALISM AND COLONIALISM -building of colonial empire for power, resources, cultural superiority -direct control over Africa and asia -colonies gave western Europe cheap raw materials, markets for finished goods and place to spread Christianity and European values -used white man’s burden as justification -west’s tying of empire to nationalism and conflict + rising needs of industrialization caused colonization BROPHY DOCUMENTS NAPOLEON “The code napoleon” -unite france under one govt, guaranteed equality and property rights -establishes central govt authority -some gender equality, e.g. woman can make a will, woman can get divorce but under unequal conditions -but wanted to undo some of French revolution’s radical egalitarianism “Principles of politics” -the terro made liberals emphasize limits to govt power and push for individual rights above all -need to codify this limit LIBERALISM “Wealth of nations” -adam smith -Praises legit laissez faire ideology, attacks mercantilism Assembly line is productive -everyone except the landlords contributes to society “corn laws” -(repeal of corn laws was indicator of bourgeoise influence in western Europe, it levied tariffs on cheap imported wheat) -free trade helps all -landlords use tariffs to get rich while contirubting nothing to society -landlords starve society -other things from documents: tariffs limit freedom and make landlords rich, if u change laws the workers will still stay poor as they have bad values and will drink the money away and the like NATIONALISM -comparing nation to man, calling it young or aging -personification, “I am freedom” -nation is permanent, natural system (Influence of social Darwinism?) “addresses to the german nation” -german nationalism is cause of napoleon’s occupation -
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