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HIS109Y exam notes on all events

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Kenneth Bartlett

Alexandra Zylka April 2011 HIS109Y Preparation Events Black Death – the most devastating natural disaster in European history in the mid fourteenth century. Ravaging Europe and causing economic, social, political, and cultural upheaval. Bubonic plague, the most common and most important form of the Black Death, was spread by black rats infested with fleas who were host to the deadly bacterium Yersinia pestis. The Black Death was the first major epidemic disease to strike Europe since the 7 century, an absence that helps explain medieval Europe’s remarkable population growth. The plague reached Europe in October 1347, when Genoese merchants brought it from Caffa to the island od Sicily off the coast of southern Italy. Mortality figures for the Black Death were incredibly high. Italy was hit especially hard. The European population declined by 25-50 percent between 1347- 1351. The Black Death had spread to northern Europe by the end of 1348. Jacquerie – Peasant revolt broke out in 1358 in Northern France. The destruction of normal order by the Black Death and the subsequent economic dislocation were important factors in causing the revolt, but the ravages created by the Hundred Year’s War also affected th the French peasantry. (the 14 century witnessed a number of revolt) Hundred Years War – Began in a burst of knightly enthusiasm. The Great Schism – Began in 1378 and ended in 1417; election of Martin V. After the death of Gregory XI, the college of Cardinals met in conclave to elect a new pope. The citizens of Rome were fearful that the French majority will pick another Frenchman. The guards of the conclave warned the cardinals about the risk if they didn’t choose an Italian. They elected the Italian archbishop Bari – Pope Urban VI (1378-1389) Pope Urban VI made it clear his plans to reform the papal curia and even to swamp the college of cardinals with enough new Italian cardinals to eliminate the French majority. The French cardinals withdrew from Rome, issued a manifesto saying they had been coerced by the mob and that Urban’s election was therefore null and void. The dissenting cardinals chose a Frenchman, who took the title Clement VII and promptly returned to Avignon. Since Urban remained in Rome, there were now two popes.- Initiating what has been called the Great Schism of the Church. The Conciliar Movement – The GS led large numbers of churchmen to take up this theory, known as conciliarism – in the belief that only a general council of the church could end the schism and bring reform to the church in its “head and members” Mysticism – the immediate experience of oneness with God Babylonian Captivity – 1305-1378. Pope (Clement the 5 ) – retreated/went to Avignon (South of France)Moved all offices of Church. Begins the Babylonian Captivity. 1370s – Preaching of two female saints – preached before the Pope asked for him to return. Captivity ended, and then the Pope died shortly after.  People rioted o 11 French Cardinals and 4 Italian Cardinals.  Cardinals are locked up to elect Pope (think of Angels and Demons) Italian was elected,wanted to bring spirituality and piety back to the church. French cardinals protested of the election and elected a French Pope.Took the church back to Avignon.1378 – Two Popes – One in Rome, one in Avignon.  Scandal – the faithful catholics of Europe didn’t know which one was real. 1494 – First invasion of Italian Peninsula 1453 – Byzantine Empire fell to Turks Diet of Worms – 1521. Luther continued his revolt – translated the Bible into German, and with his disciples they worked towards “Lutheranism” effects of the protestant reformation Peasant Revolt of 1525 - The Peasantry revolted against their landlords (1525) – called to Luther to come help support them. Luther charged them for revolting against the secular society and against God himself. (Justly punished by the forces of the secular authority – then they were slaughtered by thousands) – stain on reputation. Needed authority to spread his religious method. Chose the forces of establishment, power, princely rule – allowed the peasants to be slaughtered. Luther didn’t see his revolution as a popular one. Schmalkaldike League (1531) - Nion in order to protect the Lutheran revolt. Empire of Charles th the 5 was too immense. Diet of Augsburg (1553) - Compromise reached “the religion of the prince would determine the religion of all of its subjects”. Lutheran revolt was very much in interest for the German Princes Half of Germany was officially Protestant. Luthers revolt changed the unity off the Church forever. Roman Inquisition (1542) – in Rome Calvinism subscribed to thought control through religion. Roman Churches began to do the same thing. Individual men and women and their deeds had to be approved, faith had to be reinforced, and enforced. Index of Forbidden books  First proposed in 1559  Roman catholics were told what they could and could not read (know) If you had the knowledge of the books, you were just as guilty. List of forbidden books grew more and more every year (Erasmus, Machiavelli) - any sort of criticism directed towards the church itself. Printing press allowed protestant thoughts to be widely distributed The Wars of Religion - Horrific wars that went on for 150 years. Believed the states responsibility was to enforce their religion throughout the entire state. People of different religions did not trust each other at all. States had to be unified in their religion. The idea led to brutal warfare o After Trent, Philip II of Spain was the most powerful King in Europe  Saw himself as a defendant of the Roman Catholic Church  Supported the French Catholics, hostile toward England o Revolt of the Netherlands  Revolt of the Dutch against the Spaniards  Early societies had a hard time defining progress and change  Defined changed in terms of religion reform – go back to a simple religion, go back to the Bible – this would be their ideological engine towards revolution.  Engaged in revolution and necessary to have a justification for revolution and religion gave a just reason.  Philip’s want to control the wealth and patronage of the Dutch, Dutch didn’t like this. Guise vs. Bourbon - War between Catholics and Calvin’s began o Both houses were closely related to the royal family Civil War 1562 - Queen (Margot) first supported Catholics, but when they became too powerful, she switched to the Calvinists and then switched back to Catholics when Calvinists became too powerful. Queen decided to make sure the protestant power evaporated by slaughtering all of its leaders. Royal wedding was to take place between a catholic and a protestant o St. Bartholomew’s day massacre – slaughter, so terrible that it meant there was no solution except for Civil war Because he was marrying the king’s sister, Henry of Bourbon (Henry IV) got away. Despite the terrible event the queen realized she overplayed the catholic card, she again switched to the Protestants. The Guise house founded the catholic league in order to cinch victory The Guise did not have the best interests of France, something had to be done when they started dealing with too much with Spain. Spain was also in a poor place moneywise so they had to prove military support to the Guise Nantes (1598) - Act of Statemenship o Calvinism became legal, France became a country with two religions Henry’s victory was a result of advice from a knowledgeable group of men The Thirty Years War - broke out as an attempt to look at religion as an instrument of power and authority and national identification. 1618 war started in the Kingdom of Bohemia First continent wide war. Religious spark. Leviathan (1651) – Idea that state is omnificent, but also a monster. Nothing can bring the state down. Men and women lived in a state of nature, ruled by brute force, and lived miserable lives to provide for the strong people. The Scientific Revolution – the term is commonly applied to the changes in scientific theory and practice that took root in the early seventeenth century and promoted the advance of sicence as we know it today. It grew initially out of changes in astronomy and physics, the creation of mechanical philosophy as a general theory of nature, and the adoption of mathematics as a basic l
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