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Derek Penslar

HIS208Y1 Midterm Exam Review Notes (Textbook and Lecture) Lecture One- September 15 , 2011 Jewish Identity and Geography Ca. 300 CE  Who and where were the Jews were at this point o Who?  Shared common belief in one supreme Gd (4 century)  Shared attachment to ancient city of Israel  Shared same religious observances and sacred calendar  People of the book- Bible  Tanak (torah) o Included histories, laws and poems o Where?  By 300 Jews still living in Israel, as well as Mediterranean  Diaspora had already happened o 586- BCE- end of Davidic Dynasty o Destruction of first temple in Jerusalem  Lived primarily under foreign rule  In 539 BCE- Persian conquer and ndlowed them to return to Israel  In 516 BCE new temple (2 )  Many felt not done enough to be redeemed (jews) o Some did not return  Conquered by Alexander the Great  Hellenistic period nd  In 142-63 BCE forced to commit sins in 2 temple bc of revolt led by Macabees  Maccabees dynasty leads revolt against Antiochus IV  In 66-74 CE revolts against Egypt nd  In 70 CE the 2 temple is destroyed  Political independence o How governed?  Israel- governed as any other province in the empire (during roman empire)  Jews made up a substantial % of the empire  Allowed to have institutions  To parallel civil and religious administrations  Temple was central (everywhere)  Head Jerusalem  Unified Jewish society  Priests had lots of power and prestige (ruling class)  Sanhedrin- council, legislative authority  Abolished with temple in 70 CE  Diaspora- subjected to authorities (local and provincial)  Autonomy on some levels o Not exclusive to Jews o Diverse during period  Alexandria- ruled by own leaders, board of directors  Jews considered themselves Alexandrians o Others seem to regret degree of autonomy Jews possessed  Led to violent conflict in 38 CE  Jews and Alexandrian mob  Often Jews lived in towns and villages that did not form council/ state  Organization around synagogue  In roman empire jews were allowed to congregate in religious meetings  By 1 century CE synagogues emerging in Israel all over bc people could not make it to Jerusalem  Acculturation o Identity/ assimilation  How could Jews be part of a culture without abandoning their Jewish identity?  Question still exists today  Acculture- hellanization o Inevitable o Unconscious/ natural o Clothing, pottery  Examples from cities in Judea; synagogues  Herod‟s temple  Hellanization most shown in Jew‟s adoption of Greek o Inscriptions in Greek o Translation of Torah into Greek o Even in Israel many Jews spoke greek  Influenced by Greek philosophy  Transformation of Gd into more abstract figure  Some Jews abandoned Judaism o Prevented full assimilation  Monotheism in polytheism  Judaism during period, attracted attention  Could not take part in all communal events (due to monotheism)  Many gentiles attracted to Judaism o Conversion o Later outlawed by roman empire o Welcomed conversion  More common was that people did not fully observe Judaism but followed Sabbath/ fast o “Gd Fearing” o Added Jewish Gd to Pantheon o Israel and paganism together  Religious Development o Less emphasis on Israelites and nationality o More of a religion and less as a nationality o New form of worship: individual prayer and study  New liturgy  Would become most imp in institution if the synagogue  Word of Gd became act of study  Worship o Text of torah more firmly established  Five books of moses  Dead sea scrolls o Text inspired by Gd o Books to be eternally valid o “People of the Book” o Rabbis, mishnah and Talmud Lecture Two- September 20 , 2011 Textbook Pgs 70-91 Between Caesar and Gd  Judah the Maccabee did not rely on the help of Gd alone in his war with the Greeks o Romans were already so powerful by that time that the mere possibility that they might intervene was intimidating  During the next century the help that rome offered the Jews became a pretext for taking over Judea  Event that opened the door for the romans was a feud that broke out between two hasmoeans, aristobulous II and Hyrcanus II, over who would succeed their mother who died in 67 BCE  Roman general pompey used the conflict between the two to insert himself into Judean politics as a kind of impartial arbiter o In 63 BCE pompey arrested Aristobulous and marched on Jerusalem to root out what was left of his support  Seemed to restore self-rule to Jews, establishing Hyrcanus as ruler of Judea  Destruction of the temple in 70 BCE, Jews developed new ways of worshipping Gd that were not dependent on the offering of sacrifice Yielding to Roman Rule  Romans not so different from Jews, agrarian based, patriarchal and highly traditional  Romans came to control much of the world‟s population  Roman rule brought many advantages- improved infrastructure, relative peace, a well-developed legal system, along with support and protection for Jewish religious practice and civil rights  For its part, Rome had reasons of its own to try to win the goodwill of its Jewish subjects o Rome preferred to build its empire on the existing poltical structure of its socities it ruled, relying on the aristocracy to rule on its behalf o At first it did this in Judea as well but Hasmoneans proved too much trouble, Rome pushed them aside in favor of a more pliant ruler, Herod o Herod is best known for two reasons- rebuilding of the temple and the role he plays in the story of Jesus o Herod‟s cruelty stood out even by roman standards  Herod‟s successors continued to stay close to Rome, but with the exception of his grandson Agrippa I in 37-44 CE they were unable to kee a lid on tensions within Jewish society  Rome was drawn more directly into Judea‟s administration as a result o However only exacerbated tensions through their cruelty, venality, and disdain for Jewish tradition  For all of Rome‟s effectiveness in ruling its empire, something was not working in Judea and by 66 CE its Jewish inhabitants were in revolt Resistance and its Aftermath  In year 6 CE the Romans put Judea under direct Roman rule  In response a Jew names Judas, proclaimed roman ruler a kind of slavery and urged the nation to free itself, no major revolt occurred in this period  Roman rule made economic survival that much more difficult by confiscating land and imposing various kinds of taxes and tolls o Many jews found themselves landless and indebt as a result  Romans were not consistently anti-jewish  Worst offender was Caligula, who, angry, with the Jews for refusing to honor him as a Gd, decided in 40CE to have statue of himself as zeus installed in the Jerusalem temple  Caligula’s death did not resolve the underlying tensions betweens jews and romans  By 66CE many Jews were convinved that it was necessary to rebel against rome and were confident enough that they declared their rebellion in the most public ways- halting the sacrafices offered in the temple on behalf of the emperor and the roman people  In 69CE Vespasian was declared emperor  By the time the romans placed a siege on Jerusalem, internal tensions among the rebels had began to erupt  In early august of 70 the romans destroyed the temple  By the end of september the conquest of Jerusalem was finished, entire city in flames, thousands of Jews killed  Masada o Some rebels withstood a roman siege until 73CE, but when they saw that the romans were about to capture the fortress they decided to kill themselves to prevent slavery  Aftermath of the Jewish revolt was terrible o Rome stationed an entire legion in Jerusalem to keep matters under control o Was not enough to deter Jews from further acts of rebellion, second century saw two other major Jewish uprisings  One in Diaspora  One in Judea o First of this was known as Diaspora revolt  115-117 CE  Seems to have started in Libya but quickly spread to Egypt, Cyprus, and elsewhere  Started as an ethnic riot  Romans were not able to contain it o Bar Kochba revolt  132 CE  Judea  Perhaps the rebels goal was not just to assert their independence from Rome, but to initate the messianic age  Provoked a terrible blacklash, like the diaspora revolt  Finished in 135  Executions of Rabbi Akiba and nine other sages became legendary in later Jewish tradition  Difficult time for Judea, as it lost much of its Jewish population  Any chance of restoring the temple was lost when Rome made Jerusalem a colony of the empire  Land of Judea officially lost its Jewish identity when the romans decided to change the name of the area to Palestina  Less confrontational ways of dealing with Rome o Left the empire (Syria, Babylonia, Asia Minor)  Compared to Rome, Babylonia was a veritable refuge for Jews Ruptures and Revisions in Early Jewish Culture  Jewish culture that developed in the roman period was actually very different from that of preceding centuries  Christianity‟s Emergence from Jewish Culture o Today Jesus is part of Christian beliefs and history, but he was Jewish as were his early followers, such as Paul o Christianity arose as one of these movements, initiated by a Jew and drawing its earliest followers from the Jewish community o Paul‟s theology left open the possibility of a Christianized Judaism- Jews who identified as Jews and adhere to Jewish law but believe in Christ as well o Though Christianity soon detached itself from Jewish culture, it was still rooted in Jewish Tradition o Even after its Christianization, the Roman Empire after it formally split in 395 into the western and eastern, or western and Byzantine never declared Judaism illegal, continuing legal protections for the communities within its domain o They drove the Jews from the communities in which they lived, as happened in Alexandria in 414  Surviving the temples destruction o Temple was crucial for linking Diaspora Jews wih fellow Jews in Judea to one another o Temple‟s most fundamental role was religious o All this can help to understand why the destruction of the second temple in 70CE was such a devastating event: ripped out the wiring that connected the Jews with Rome, the Jews of Diaspora with the Jews of Judea, and the Jews with Gd o How Jewish life was able to adjust to life without the temple need to take note of how Jewish culture differed from that of Judea 500 yrs earlier, after the first temple had been destroyed  Three differences  By the first century, some Jews who were alienated from Jerusalem or the temple had begun to experiment with alternatives  Jewish community was much larger and more widely dispersed than it was in early post exilic Judea, development of localized forms of worship  Priesthood did not survive the destruction of the second temple Lecture Two-Class Notes  Emperor Constantine and Christianity o Edict of Milan (313)  Granted the Christians and all men the ability to practice whatever religion they desire  Jews at this point are citizens of the roman empire  Before this Christians were under religious persecution th th o Gradual triumph of Christianity (4 and 5 century)  Often found themselves competing with Jews at this point o Julian the Apostate (361-363)  Raised as Christian but secretly converted to Paganism  Came to view Christianity as an enemy of the state  Began to take away some of the lands and privileges given to Christians  Began rebuilding of temple, friend of Jews  By promoting Judaism, he was preventing Christianity  Only ruled for short while could not make any change  Jews, Christians and Pagans th o Coexistence and competition until the 4 century  Often peaceful enough, no reason to believe they did not coexist  Sometime not  During Julian‟s short reign, Pagans took revenge on Christian clergy  Ambrosius says that Jews participated in this as well  Damascus, Gaza  Roman Law and the Jews o Fundamental change in religious climate that negatively affected the Jews  Theodosius I  Last Roman Emperor before split into two (east and west)  Christianity became official religion of Rm Empire  Decline in jewish rights after his conversion to rdristianity?  After 3 century Jews could not convert others  Could not own Christian slaves  Could not seem better than Christians  Jews could not mistreat Jews who had converted to Christianity  Jews could no longer serve on councils of the empire  Theodosius I began prohibiting pagan groups as well  Paganism was not allowed, Judaism was still a legal religion  Just restricted  Prohibited building of new synagogues  Could keep old ones  In 408 CE- hanging of Haman Prohibited  Banning Jews from serving as officers, then legal positions and the offices that gave them a certain status  Jews should not exercise authority over Christians  Change of Judaism from religion to superstition  Justinian- Jews as enemy of church and state  Interfere with religion o Postpone Passover, dictate what reading to use for holidays  Jewish Patriarch nd o Nasi (Hebrew), 2 century BCE-425 CE  We see power of patriarch increasing  Head of central rabbinic academy in 2 century  By the 4 century- jurisdiction over all Jews of the empire; senatorial rank  Collected taxes from Jews all over the empire  In 425 it ends  Reasons why unclear  Doing things not suppose to do  Current patriarch in 425 demoted to a lower rank o When died service was not renewed  Rabbis and Oral Torah o Tannaim- copilers of the Misnah o Mishnah- 200 CE, work is anonymous  Rabbi Judah (patriarch)  Material of legal character  Not legal document o Talmud- moraim in Jerusalem and Babylonia  Babylonia- exilarch, Sura and Pumbedita  Difference between two  Language  Jerusalem talmud more concise  Babylonia talmud more influential o Became foundation for Jewish thought Lecture Three- September 22 , 2011 Textbook Notes- Pgs 92-113 Rabbinic Revelations  Rabbis were the direct successors to Moses  Rabbinic Judaism differed from earlier forms of Jewish culture in many ways o Second temple period focused on the priest, primary role was not to interpret the Bible or preach to the people but to perform the rituals that allowed Israel to interact with Gd in the temple o In rabbinic Judaism the priest was eclipsed by the Rabbi, connection to the biblical past was based on intellectual rather than familial pedigree, authority was not based on his role in the rituals of the Temple but on his study and interpretation of Torah Late Antique Jewish Culture Without the Rabbis  Testimony suggests that rabbinic sources give the rabbis an exaggerated rome in Jewish culture of this period, making them more central than they really were  If we did not have rabbinic sources to consult, what picture would we have of Jewish life in the centuries after the destruction of the second temple?  Unable to practice the Temple Cult as they had in the past, some Jews took it underground, using imaginative apocalyptic stories to nurture fantasies of a time when Gd would defeat their enemies and give back what they had taken away  Emperor named Julian did give then hope o 362 CE o Undertook to rebuild the temple to reverse the Christianization of the Rm Emp  Development of more localized Jewish practice o Synagogues were at the very center of Jewish communal life o Synagogue was described as a kind of substute temple o Role synagogues played in Jewish life different from role of Temple  Center for prayer and study  Changes in Jewish political life, the patriarch  Christianized Rome never sough to abolish Judaism, continuing to recognize it as a legally sanctioned religion  Augustine o Augustine of Hippo o 354-430 o Theologian o Believed the Jews had misunderstood the Bible and interpreted their suffering and dispersion as divine punishment for their rejection of Christ, but does not advocate violent opposition to the Jews, characteristic of other Christian thinkers of the day o Should be able to exist, albeit in a miserable state, as living testimony of Christian belief o Influence of Augustine’s views of the Jews were a major reason they were able to survive under Christian rule through antiquity and the middle ages o Begrudging tolerance  Legal segregation and intercommunal violence helped to sharpen the differences between Christianity and Judaism  Jews of Babylonia o Same basic situation of Jews living under Rome- they too faced the challenge of sustaining their cultural traditions under foreign rule- but the political and cultural envt in babylonia was different in important ways o For many centuries, the Jews of Babylonia were ruled under the same rulers that governed Judea, but that changed in the first century BCE when they came under the rule of the Parthian Kingdom, then the Sassanian Kingdom  Loosely organized, allowing religious/ ethnic minorities a fair amount of control over their internal organization and communal affairs o Difference between Rome and Babylonia was Hellenization  Not beyond influence of Hellenization, but their culture also reflects the influence of the indigenous Babylonian and Persian culture  Not clear the impact that rabbis had on the larger community Putting the Rabbis into the Picture  Emergence of the rabbinic culture nd o First stage of rabbinic history, spans from end of 2 temple to 200 CE o The theory that rabbinic Judaism is an offshoot of Pharisaic Judaism helps us understand where the rabbis came from, but it should not lead us into simply equating the rabbis with the Pharisees o The priesthood probably continued in this period, potentially competiting with the rabbis for influence, but its authority in society was tied to the Temple o Rabbis authority was tied to their role as legal and scriptural experts o Crucial to success of rabbinic Judaism that the early rabbis were willing to live with Roman rule  Emerging Rabbinic Authority in the Jewish community o The unofficial and diffuse nature of rabbinic authorities changed to some degree when the rabbinic movement associated itself with the patriarchate, dynastic office recognized by the roman empire o Mishnah presentation of what the sages said, presenting their positions on various legal issues o Those sages who live up to the time of the Mishnah are known as the Tannaim o Rabbinic sages living after this period from 220 to 500 CE are known as the Amoraim o Vocation of being a sage became more accessible  Initially it was largely confined to those with sufficient wealth to support themselves without constant labor  Creation of salaried positions for certain sages by establishing tithe to support poor disciples o Rome was in need of a leader who could serve as an intermediary between the gvnt and the jews o Patriarch does not seem to have depended on the rabbis for authority, maintaining his position even when they disapproved of him o He also sent rabbinic envoys to various communities in Palestine and the diaspora to collect taxes for the patriarchate and to supervise religious practice o Alliance with the patriarchate explains how rabbbis of late antiquite Palestine were able to extend their authority into the larger jewish community o Rabbinic movement never completely identified itself with the patriarchate o Rabbis provided leadership to the Jews of Palestine after the demise of the patriarchate, suing their roles as teachers, judges, and preachers to shape Jewish life o Center of Rabbinic culture shifted elsewhere to Babylonia  To Babylonia and Beyond o After the 3 century CE, it began to emerge as a major center of rabbinic activity o This shift is reflected in the career of a single sage named Rav Abba, or Rav  Erdablished a Bet Midrash (study house) at Sura o By the 3 century an official head known as the exilarch “head of exile” existed in Babylonia  Enjoyed a large measure of political and legal authority over the Jewish commmuntiy dwelling within the Parthian and Sassanian Kingdoms o Sages of Babylonia had developed their own distinctive intellectual culture o The Geonim (600-1000 CE)  Babylonian sages who headed the two most important rabbinic academies at sura and pumbedita  When Babylonia came under Muslim rule authorities affirmed the legal authority of the exilarch and the Geonim  Eventually all communities came under Geonic sway The Rabbinization of Jewish Culture  Source of rabbis religious authority was not some prophetic calling but rather his study of Torah  Rabbis developed their own way of interpreting the Hebrew Bible known as Midrash  By the time of the Babylonian talmud, rabbinic sages had come to believe that the Torah revealed to Moses had two forms o Oral Torah transmitted by the sages o Written Torah preserved in the Bible  Today rabbis function as religious leaders in the synagogue, but they did not play this role until the middle ages th Lecture Four- September 27 , 2011 Textbook Notes (Pgs 147-8, 157-8, 160-61, 161-62, 164) Under the Cross  Even before islam divided the Med world, the Christian Roman Empire had begun to fracture politically  Deep theological issues divided Christians, esp over the nature of Jesus  Increasing tensions between the two major orthodox traditions of east and west culminated in the so-called “great schism” of 1054 o Byzantine-orthodox o Rome and west- catholic  For many centuries the Jews of the byzantine empire outnumbered the Jews in the west, but that began to change in the 11 century, the age of the crusades  Some Jewish communities fell to catholic conquest in places such as spain and southern italy  As Christian Europe began to expand into Islamic realms the Jews under its rule became increasingly important in the larger Jewish world  In this fractured landscape, Jewish exp varied widely from place to place, but we will nonetheless venture one broad generalization: while Jews prospered in many parts of the Christian realm, it was also in this context that they experienced severe levels of discrimination and violent persecution  All of western Europe- with the exception of Italy- partially or completely expelled the Jews  The official position of the papacy towards the jews, one of qualified tolerance shaped by the thinking of St. Augustine, can be said to have been articulated by Pope Gregory I (r. 590-604) o Held that Jews were in theological error and enforced restrictions against them, but he also held that they ought not be forcibly converted or killed o Papal bull  Sicut Judaeis  Promulgated by Calixtus II (1119-1124 ruled) and reissued by subsequent popes  Position enshrined as official church policy  Granted Jews protection and forbade Christians from compelling their conversion  The resulting combination of pragmatism and religious tolerance allowed Jewish communities to exist and even flourish under Christian rule  Sometimes, especially in times of political, economic, or ecological stress, a more hostile anti-judaism asserted itself  Situation for Jews in western Europe became particularly dire in the 12 to 15 th centuries with four interrelated factors playing an esp catalytic role o The crusades o The blood libel and other anti-jewish accusations o Resentment generated by the role of jews in the larger economic and political structure of Europe o More hostile and interventionist church Medieval Spain  Before they were under Muslim rule, the Jews of the region now known as spain were under Visgoth rule o Christians who had inherited anti-Jewish legislation from Roman legal tradition o Jews faced severe legal restrictions and even persecutions during and after the reigns of the Visgothic rulers Recard (586-601) and Sisebut (612-621) o Sisebut ordered the Jews of spain to either convert or leave  They were receptive to the Muslims who conquered spain in 711 o Muslim rule did not mean an end to Catholic ambitions to rule sthin o The catholic reconquest of Spain gained momentum in the 11 century as the Catholic Kings of northern spain made headway against the taifas or principalities that made up muslim spain o Battle in 1212 of Las Navas de Tolosa the Catholics utterly routed the Muslim forces and from then on Catholicism prevailed in most of Spain o By this time Jews were suffering from Muslim persecution and foced conversion at the hands of the Almoravids and were receptive to Christian rule Medieval Italy  Pope Gregory I resisted attempts to forcibly convert the Jews, offering protection to those who lived in Rome, Naples and elsewhere  When the byzantine empire asserted itself in southern italy by the ninth century, it was less tolerant, seeking to compel the conversion of the Jews  Italy who remain a major center of Hebrew scholarship and literary creativity throughout the middle ages  An important source for our knowledge of jewish life in Italy comes from the great traveler, Benjamin of Tudela, who departed from Spain around 1160  Italian Jews enjoyed a thriving economy and culture  Jewish fourtunes changed in he 13 century when some of the same pressures and problems that beset the Jews elsewhere- the campaigns against the Talmud, the forcing Jews to attend missionizing sermons, the blood libel, and forced conversion-came to affect the Jews of Italy as well  The Jews of italy did not suffer the wholesale expulsions that the Jews of England, Spain and other places did, however not immune to persecution and expulsion th  In 1492 Jews were expelled from Naples in the early 16 century, after which no communities remained south of Rome  First Ghetto in Venice in 1516 Medieval France  French nation as it exists today did not exist in the middle ages  As a result, distinct Jewish cultures developed in the different political realms of France-the two most important ones bearing names taken from the regions they inhabited: Tarzat and Provens  Under Charlemagne (r. 768-814) the greatest king of that dynasty, an important Jewish community thrived under the autonomous leadership of the socalled “king of the Jews” o Charlemagne initated the symbiotic relationship between the Jews and the King of France that would allow Jewish life to thrive in France despite efforts by church officials to legislate against the Jews in the 9 century o Jews established themselves as merchants, and in the field of agriculture, they gained a virtual monopoly over the wine trade  In 1144 in the first known legal act of a French king preserved in writing, Louis VII expelled from his realm jews who had converted to Christianity and then returned to Judaism  In 1240 the talmud was put on trial in Paris and was sentenced to be destroyed by fire th th th  The 13 , 14 , and 15 centuries saw many other confiscations, perecutions, and expulsions o A Jewish pop had dwindled from 100 000 in 1300 to 20 000 by 1490  This also put in a difficult position the Jews of provence and Languedoc, who, while not suffering the expulsions that Jews from the royal domains did, nevertheless suffered terrible violence in 1320  Thereafter Jews continued to live in France until 1498 when, on the heels of the Spanish and Portuguese expulsions, the Jews of Provence were also ordered to leave o They did so in 1501 Medieval German-Speaking Europe  Late tenth century, Jews of the German empire enjoyed a certain degree of protection from the emperors, who recognized their utility in laying the commercial groundwork for cities  Under Gershom‟s influence, the three major Jewish settlements of the Rhineland- Speyer, Worms and Mainz-began to assert themselves as indpendent centers of learning, developing the major institutions of Jewish life o These three tows were the original heartland of Ashkenazic Jewry  Many of these cities sought to attract Jews by means of charters or municipal contracts that would offer them security in the expectation that they would help the city develop into a trading hub th Lecture Notes- September 27 , 2011 Jews in Early Modern Europe  Last week-  Changes were made to Roman law that put Jews as second class citizens  Church fathers preached anti-judaism  After the collapse of the Roman Empire o Early Medieval Europe  500-1000 CE  Very different world from Roman empire in which the Jews were living  Early Medieval Europe o Germanic peoples: Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Lombards, Franks, Saxons  Emergence of Germanic kingdoms after the collapse of the Roman Empire  In 476 CE the death of the last Western Roman Empire  Germanic peoples were not centralized, left a lot of local and regional people in power  Exception- Carolingian empire  Much less urban than during roman empire  Emergence of large rural estates (nobility)  Large majority of western Europeans not Christian in the ways of the Christian fathers  Were the early Middle Ages better? o Christians in this period less Christian, so less susceptible to Anti-Jewish preaching from church o Sources dealing with Jews not a lot, legislation all have  Jewish settlement o Where?  Established in many parts of Europe, post roman empire  Iberian peninsula o Population must have been quite sizeable by 5 th century o What did they do?  Minor artisans  Landowners- large estates worked by Christian workers  Merchants  After muslim conflict with Christians, jewish merchants became neutral territories  Active in international slave trade  Continued after Roman Empire  Pagan Slavs, sold to Jews, where then transported to Muslim lands o Charters ensuring protection freedom of movement, religious freedom  Brought prosperity to city therefore encouraged Jewish settlement  They were wanted by King  Early medieval Jewish communities were able to create firm economic, religious and political foundations  Varied from place to place  Italy o Legal status firmly protected in south o Sparse settlements in the north o Palestinian Jewish culture  Poetry traces back to Palestine  Visigothic Spain- conquered it in 5 century o Aryan, Christian o Large Jewish Spain o Difference between Visigoths and Hispanics (Roman and Catholic) o In 587 Visigothic ruler converted to Catholicism thus bridging gap between them and Hispanics  Restrictions placed on jews  No intermarrying  Could not hold office  Own Christian slaves o Ordered all Jewish inhabitants to be baptized  Kings did not have enough power and control to do it  Regional nobles favored the Jews  Trying to limit monarchical power  Church itself was not keen on having forced conversion o King Recceswinth  Outlawed Jewish practices (654)  Passover  Marriage ceremonies  Dietary laws  Circumcision  Ultimate goal is to make Judaism impossible o In 684 (?) King Ervig attempted to enslave all Jews  Clergy usually cooperated with monarchy in anti-jewish legislation  Relief from this would come from muslim conquest in 711  Frankish Realms o Much less eventful o Meroviagian period- scarce evidenc e o Carolingians- Loius the Pious (814-40) o Carolingians saw themselves as heirs to Roman Empire o Saw Jews as people of their empire, givens laws and protection o Creation of special office  Magister judeorum  Christians who oversaw Jews in Europe o Evidence of Jews partaking in office o Bodo- Elezar (839)  Had to flee Frankish rethms bc conversion was still not allowed o When empire separated in the 9 century, Jews became more dependent on individual rulers  Church and Jews o Agobard of Lyons (822-28)  Reflect fair amount of anxiety about Jews (clergy)  Christians getting too close/ influenced by Jews  Concern of contact with Jews o Church councils (in different parts of Europe)  Prohibitions of Judaizing  Jews cannot own slaves  Hold office  Prohibitions on christians to block interaction with Jews  No viewing Sabbath dinner  Relations marriage o Papal policy  Augustinian- goals was to keep them in degraded positions, but also protect them  Consistent throughout medieval period th Lecture Five- September 27 , 2011 Textbook Notes- Pgs 116-122 Under the Crescent  Two major historical devlopments, the collapse of the roman empire and the rise of islam were esp imp for the transition of Jewish history beyond late antiquity and into the middle ages  In 286 CE the emperor Dicoletian divided the empire into western and eastern halves, a division that eventually became permanent  Fall of the western roman empire is one conventional starting point for the middle ages  Byzantine o Eastern Roman Empire o Associated with two specific events: the move in 330CE of the capital of the roman empire by the emperor Constantine from rome to newly anmed Constantinople o Emergence of christianity later in that century as the official religion of the empire o Byzantine empire would last in one form or another until the fall of Constantinople in 1453 to the ottoman turks  Rise of islam o Founder Muhammed, born in 570 CE in Arabian city of mecca o Muslims believe that Muhammed was a prophet to whom allah revealed a series of revelations now recorded in the Koran  End point of the Jewish middle ages is a more difficult challenge o A key turning point is 1492, the date of Columbus‟ famous journey to the western hemisphere o Expulsion of the Jews from Spain o Last of a series of expulsions between 1290 and 1492 that drove the Jews from Western Europe o Jewish middle ages is a conspicuously long period o Jews found themselves dispersed throughout much of asia, Europe, Africa, Persia and India, were divided from one another by both political and religious boundaries  One of the most significant aspects of this shared identity was a deep engagement in, the rabbinic literature of late antiquity: the Mishnah and the Talmud  Hebrew served as a common language for Jews from different lands who did not share a common vernacular; a legal language; a business language; a philosophical language by which interpreters decoded the more difficult, ancient Hebrew of the bible and the Talmud  Another common denominator among many Jews was a shared attachment to the land of Israel o For most Jews Palestine was a place that existed in their imagination Jewish History in the Islamic Middle Ages  Throughout the MA, the Jews of islam represented the great majority of the world‟s Jewish population- by some estimates up to 90%  Muhammad and the Jews o Islam was founded in the seventh century by the Prophet Muhammad o Despite this effort at coexistence, local politics in Medina, probably more than theological issues, pitted some prominent Jewish tribes against Muhammad o Eventually as the Muslim community took shape, a balance was reached; Islam recognized the basic right of Jews and other subjects to live in Muslim society- but only under certain conditions, most especially that they accept their basic subordination to Muslim rule  The Legal Basis of Jewish Life Under Islam o Pact of Umar  Traditionally attributed to Caliph Umar (r.633-644)  Pact has the form of a letter from the christian community to their new Muslim overlords in which the Christians promise “we shall not build in our cities any new monasteries, churches..we shall not hold public religious ceremonies..we shall not attempt to resemble the Muslims in any way with regard to their dress…we will not strike a Muslim” in exchange for living in peace under Islam  After growth of Islam in Syria, Palestine, Iraq and Persia engulfed large Jewish communities and they too came under the terms of this pact  Non muslims in pact go by name of dhimmi or “protected peoples”  Dhimmis may live in security within Islam, but must obey the restrictions imposed by pact and pay a yearly tribute called the Jizya  Designed to demonstrate their acknowledgement of muslim overlordship  Jews not allowed to hold public office since it would put them in a place of authority over Muslims  This was similar to chrisian ideas regarding Jews  However pact included not only Jews but christians as well  Not singled out  Pact of Umar defined the theoretical and legal foundation of Jewish life under Muslim rule, from beginnings of Islamic state th through the 19 century  Did not restrict the economic activites or the profession of a Jew or Christian could exercise, nor did it limit their freedom of residence and travel o Widespread adoption of Arabic language and culture o For the Christians, subjugation of the Jews, formalized with the passage of the Theodosian code of 438 was partly rooted in the early history of the Christian religion  Christians blamed the Jews for the death of Jesus o In contrast, while Islam also had a stake in the conversion of the Jews, this reflected Islam‟s attitude toward all peoples o Jewish history under Islamic rule almost inevitably has a more positive cast than it has under Christian rule o Jews livied in both the countryside and the cities of the Islamic world, but the city takes center stage in modern understandings of this period  Cities were center of intellectual, literary, political and economic activity that leave a written record  Some cities stand out more esp for Jewish history  Baghdad o Ultimately the most significant challenge to the Geonic supremacy of Baghdad, did not come form Palestine or Egypt, but from Cordoba (muslim spain), which attracted the Jewish world’s leading intellectuals  The Umayyad Caliphate and the Expansion of Muslim Rule o Caliph was a religious-political leader of the Muslim community  Successor to Muhammad o First caliphal dynasty called the Umayyad Caliphate, lasted from 661-750  Capital in Damascus, the Umayyad caliphs extended Islam over a vast region from Afghanistan to Spain  Expansion under the Umayyads arguably triggered the most fundamental change in Jewish culture since the destruction of the second temple in 70 CE o Muslim and Christian society faced each other as two superpowers  Jews under Islamic rule were something of a third party to this standoff, not directly embroiled in the larger political and religious conflict but with much gain from Islamic rule o In 642 Iraq fell to the Muslims, rest of Persian empire would soon follow, bringing with it a large Jewish population and with the Babylonian academies, the center of Geonic intellectual and religious authority o Islam provided a refuge from the hostility, social barriers, and legal discrimination that Jewish communities had faced under Christian rule o Umayyads went on to capture spain in 711 o In year 750 the Umayyads fell to the Abassids, a rival dynasty who in their bid for power, almost exterminated the Umayyad ruling clan o The beginning of the Abbassid period initiates a distinct phase of Jewish history in the Islamic realm The Cairo Genizah  The documents found in the Cairo Genizah are the most important source of information for the economic and social lives of Jews in the middle ages Lecture Six- October 4 , 2011 Textbook- Pgs 122-145  Abbasid Rule and the Rise and Fall of the Geonic Authority o Remained the most widely recognized caliphate in Islam until 1258 when the Mongols destroyed it o Geonic practice of writing responsa was perhaps the most important way the Gaon exerted his authority across the great geographic expanse o A given Gaon wrote out a judicial opinion in response to a specific legal inquiry and thereby established a legal precedent to which subsequent legal scholars refer o Geonate sahred authority with the exilarch, whose authority, which was political in nature and not religious was rooted in his supposed descent from King David o The Babylonian Geonate derived their authority from their intellectual achievement o No figure better personifies the power of the Geonate than saadya Ben Yosef (882 or 892-942) who presided as Gaon of the academy of Sura from 928 until his death  Known as Saadya Gaon  Wrote many works including the early versions of the siddur (standardized version of prayers)  Wrote extensively in Arabic, he is considered the founder of Judeo-arabic literature  Also active in the oppisition of Karaism in the defense of rabbinic Judiasm  Deposed as Gaon after a conflict with the exilarch and other opponents but was later reappointed  His death in 942 was a turning point in the history of the Geonate  Gaon was in decline after his death due diffusion of Talmudic studies in new centers of learning, and the rise of independent intellectuals in such places as Egypt and Spain o One of the signs of the limit of Gaonic authority was the rise of the Karaites  Dissenting minority within the Jewish people in reaction against that influence (rabbinic)  This community developed alternatively theories of Halakhah or legal norms based on the principle of bible alone  The geonim not only had to vie for authority with one another and the exilarch; they also had to compete for the allegiance of Jewish communities with a sect that contested the very basis of their authority  Date back to the beginning of the 8 century  At beginning not a single group but many diff sects  Anan Ben David identified as the formative figure in the development of karaite ideology  Rejection of oral torah and the rabbis in favor of the written torah as the sole source of legal authority  The fact that karaite movement was so popular in the earlier tenth and twelfth century is more evidence of the declining authority of the Geonate in this period The Geonic Standardization of Jewish Prayer  Prayer as a continuous religious obligation, one to be performed by Jews several times a day and following a fixed sequence of prescripted blessings and prayers seems to have developed over th course of the second temple and rabbinic period  Not until the Geonic period that the first prayer book, the siddur, was developed Glimpses of Jewish History in Muslim Palestine  By the time Muslim conquered the land of Israel in 638 CE the region had become predominantly christian  Palestine Geonate had control over the remnants of the Jewish community of the roman empire now under Islamic control  Palestine would not witness significant Jewish cultural vitality for almost 500 years, when the expulsion from Spain would impel Jews to migrate there The community of the Cairo Genizah  Jewish cmmuntiy in Egypt lived under yet another Islamic empire distinct from both the Umayyads and the Abbassids- the Fatimid empire (969-1171)  Rivals to the abbasid caliphs in Baghdad who adhered to the antagonistic sunni stream of Islamic tradition  Jewish community at Cairo was initially subject to thetheligious authority of the Palestinian Gaon, but that changes at the end of the 11 century when the Palestinian Jewish community was devastated by the crusades  Egyptian rabbinic authorities eventually displaced the Palestinian Gaon The “Golden Age of Muslim Spain”  Period of Islamic rule in Spain is remembered as a “golden age” in Jewish history  Description of this age as one of peaceful coexistence, a period of stability and prosperity that allowed for the flourishing of scholarship, poetry and religious innovation contains much truth  Umayyad dynasty found a new home in the recently conquered region of Spain  Over the course of the next two centuries, his descendants struggled to maintain their rule over muslim Spain, sometimes managing to rein in independent Spanish princes, and other times failing th  Spanish caliphate lasted until the beg of the 11 century, when local rulers shook off the centural power of Cordoba  Spain descended into civil war, which was resolved unofficially in rhe year 1013 when various princes settled into their own fiefdoms a independent mini states called taifas  Embolden the Spanish Catholic Kings, who overcame their division to unite against their common Muslim enemy  In the face of this great loss (Toledo in 1085) the Muslims recognized their failures and called on the Almoravids, a muslim dynasty from northwest Africa to defend against the christian kings of castile and Leon  The Almoravids imposed a harsh religious order, brief attempt at conversion of the Jews was averted, but the tone of the relationship between the ruling Muslims and the Jews changed with their reign  Later succedded by the Almohads o New regime directly persecuted the Jews and Christians of Spain with an intensity neiter had experienced until then o In reaction to this attack many Jews converted to save themselves, while many others fled to southern France, christian Spain and North Africa  The “Golden Age” of Spain was not quite the multicultural paradise that often is portrated,  Jewish communities and their leaders, however successful were dependent on non-Jewish patrons and subject to their rule  Ethnic religious tensions sometimes resulted in a deadly violence, as it did in Grenada in 1066 Jewish Lives under Islamic Rule  Rise of Arabic in place of Hebrew and Aramaic as the language used by many Jews in Babylonia, the Middle East and north Africa  Jews developed a dialect of Judeo-arabic that employed Hebrew letters and vocabulary, gradually registering how successfully Arabic was integrated into Jewish culture  Increased urbanization  With the rise of Islam, many Jews migrated from the country to town, or from towns to larger cities  One jewish trading firm deserves special note: the great merchant family of the Radhanites dealers in silk fabrics, furs and swords whose dealing extended from western Europe to china  Suggestion tht travel held a certain fascination for Jews, as it did for Muslims  It was clear that Jews were employed in a wide range of professions and manufacturing  Jewish marriage in the middle ages was formalized in a number of stages  As in late antiquity the synagogue remained a central communal institution, playing both religious and economic roles  Jewish communities enjoyed a large measure of legal and religious autonomy under Islamic rule, with courts that addressed cases according to Jewish law and Jewish leadership appointed by Jews themselves Jewish Thought and Imagination During Islamic Rule  Two main philosophical schools that had the greatest influence on medieval philosophy were Neo-Paltonism and Aristotelianism o Neo-paltonism posited a hierarchical structure to the cosmos- the creator emanates downward toward the material world through a series of spheres of being o Aristoleianism held that philosophy must proceed independently of supernatural sources of knowledge: one must reach it by means of empirical observation, reasoned inference and logical demonstration  Maimonides o Known as Rambam o Born in Cordoba but fled to Egypt to escape Almohad persecution o One of his most important works was the Mishneh Torah, fourteen volume code of Jewish law  Still has canonical authority as a codification of Talmudic Law o Guide for the Perplexed, the most important medieval Jewish philosophical text o In guide to the perplexed, he acknowledges the limits of human reason for understanding Gd o  Alongside philosophy another response to Greek rationalism was Jewish mysticism o Most famous elaboration of this tradition is the work known as the Zohar or book of splendor attributed in later tradition to the second century rabbinic sage shimon bar yochai but believed to have authored largely by a Spanish-Jewish mystic Moses de Leon  Building on the kind of mystical ideas found in the book of Bahir, the Zohar treats the five books of Moses as a coded story of Gd, who is unknowable and infinetly mysterious, and his sefirot, the emanations by which he is revealed to the world  The Middle Ages saw the rise of the running commentary on the biblical text, and some of those commentaries, reproduced in the margins of the traditional Jewish printed edition of the bible known as the Mikra‟ot Gedolot continue to serve as an important tool for understanding the difficulties of the biblical text in the original Hebrew Lecture Notes- October 3 , 2011 Jews in Medieval Islamic State and Society  Muslim Rulers o A lot of pieces are not known o “Rightly guided Caliphs”  633-61  First rulers after Muhammad o Umayyad Dynasty (661-750)  Consolidation of Islam o Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258)  Capital moved to Baghdad  Jewish Leaders o Exilarch descendant of King David; close to Abbasid caliphs  Dynasty confirmed Exilarch power as well as christian leaders  Recognized as leading representatives of the Jews o Gaon, Geonim of Sura, Pumbedita  Relocation to Baghdad in the 9 century  Head academies, judicial role  Sought to make legal rules for all Jews  Most legitimate holders of the Oral torah  Interpreters of babylonia Talmud- responsa  Jews throughout the world send inquiries and the Geonim would respond  Many survive, people would collect them and keep them safth  From the 8 century on- more influential than Palestinian Geonim  Academies were supported by taxes and benefactors throughout world  Don‟t know all about the appointment for Geonim  Not hereditary  Both offices had to be approved by the Muslim authorities  Karaites did not approve of the geonim  Did not recognize them  Political fragmentation and cultural unity among Muslims o Fatimids in Egypt- Tunisia (909-1171), Iberia as well o Caliphs became weak, as soldiers became overshadowing o Independent dynasties would emerge o Over time majority of people (not jews) living in msulims lands converted (11 century)  Caliph seems far away they want some close to connect to  Parallel Jewish developments o Different cultural centers began to emerge  Loss of power to Geonim  Aayrawan (Tunisia), Fustat-Cairo, Cordoba  Parallel academies, officials, studies  Jewish officials in Islamic gvnt o Ex. Abu Sa‟d Ibrahim al-tustan (d. 1047) o Samuel Ibn Naghrela  Death in 1056  Vizier/ wazir  After death son succeeds him and is killed in Muslim uprisings in Grenada  Gained significant power under Islamic rulers  Berber king o Why were Jews allowed?  With different factions arising, easier to escape competition with jews and christians  Easier to trust than a Muslim o Majority of people in power muslim, but few exception  Jews in Islamic Society o City and town dwellers o Rise of merchant class, esp 10 and 12 century o Ties to religious, intellectual elites o Mobility networks-many social networks between Jewish communities o A lot of different opp arrived in this period o Constant movement of good, people, and ideas from east to west o Merchants often functioned as intermediaries between academies bc head had means of communication o Jewish artisans  Prominent in textile  Silk, cotton, dying of wools, metal production, letter and parchment paper  Jewish women worked as well  Embroidery, work done at home  Men sold their goods  Washer, preparers of the dead  Domestic servants, not a lot of evidence  Cleaners of synagogues, schools, homes of widowers o In certain cities, Jews and Muslims had separate guilds o Partnership between Muslims and Jewish Merchants  Ale to rest on different days, store always open  Deterioration th o Norman conquests (late 11 century) o Crusades (1196) o Christian kingdoms in spain begin to conquer Muslims areas o Christian expansion in spain (reconquista) th o Mongol conquests (13 century)-Baghdad (1258) o Dhimmis put in awkward position o Jews do go on living in Muslim world, whole period of isolation, social degradation  Not expelled like in other Christian lands Lecture Seven- October 6 , 2011 Jewish Cultural Flourishing under Medieval Islam  Judeo-Arabic Culture  Notion of Golden-Age  Golden Age? o We tend to look at well-to do class  Is their exp representative of exp of the majority of Jews?  Convergence of interests and Limitations o We can see that Jews and Muslims lived next to each other o Partnership seen by some as unlawful but still occurred  Religious side fell to the side in exchange for joint businesses o Background  Parallels between Judaism and Islam  Monotheism  As compared to trinity in christianity o Common theological and legal perspective o Building on legacy of Greek philosophy, science etc  Translation of Greek workd by muslim and Jewish scholars  Hypocrates and Galen texts  Scholars would study translation, own works were influenced by Muslim scholars  Study circles involving jews and Muslims  Friendships would develop between both  Theology and Philosophy o Conflict of reason and faith? o Greek texts and philosophical tools o Maimonides  Spain, 1135-1204  Impact of Aristotle and Muslim Philosophers  Guide for the Perplexed  Drew a lot from Muslim sources  GFTP  Evident that ideas of Muslim philsophers were used  Addressed to a former student  Goal was to demonstrate philosophic intelligibility fo law and scripture  Work becomes very influential  Sufism/ mysticism o Sufi admiration for pious rabbis  To know gd in a very special way  At beginning very based on Judaism  Inspired by Judaism  Started becoming attractive for Jews  Sometimes felt constrained by religious authorities and doctors of law  Jews and Muslims often conversing on these issues  Number of Jews who practiced Sufism, but did not convert o Jewish sufis  Bahya b. Paquda (ca. 1080), duties of the heart  Abraham (b. Maimonides) d. 1237  Maimonides son  Limitations o Arabic poetry, Hebrew poetry, Jewish “cultural nationalism”  Wrote poetry in Hebrew, to show that they had “cultural nationalism”  Defense mechanism to prevent obliteration in prevalent Arabic culture  Assertion of equality as well as nationalism o Jewish criticism of Jewish courtiers and poets  Arab style education for purposes of social mobility and for neglect of torah and talmud  Jewish camp- they should be careful when they get too close to line between muslim-jewish relations o Sense of vulnerability  Conditions could change very quickly, despite rising far in muslim court/ world  Maimonides- knows that even though things may be good, in times of bloodshed Jews must remember who they are and who their rulers were o Silence  Very little works against muslim/ Islam  With christianity this is not true Lecture Eight- October 11 , 2011 Textbook Pgs 147-167 The Crusades  The year 1000, Europe became more aggressively self-confident and went on to march against the Islamic world  In 1095 Pope Urban II called on European christians to remove the ruling Muslims from the holy land, launching the first crusade  First crusade in 1095  Over the 12 and 13 centuries, other crusades followed  Thus sometimes deflected from their original mission, attacking instead Jews they came across- the alleged motivation: revenge for the death of Jesus  In 1096 the crusaders attacked the synagogue in Speyer, and killed 11 Jews  When the crusaders finally reached Jerusalem in 1099, they killed the jews there too, along with the Muslims of the city, further weakening the Rabbinate Jewish community of Palestine and essentially destroying the Karaite community  When the killing was over 1000s were dead (Jews) o Some had been forcibly baptized, and some Jewish children had been kidnapped o Suicide and despair chronicled o The jews who had killed themselves in this way became martyrs  First Crusade did not significantly derail the growth pattern of German Jewry  Jewish communities of the Rhineland were able reinstitute themselves with the help of the Roman Empror Henry IV, who allowed converted Jews to return to their religion without further penalty st  Terrible violence of the 1 crusade may be what promulgated the Sicut Judaeis which institutionalized a more tolerant attitude toward the Jews  Second crusade 1145-49  Psychological scars created by the first crusade left a deep impact on European Jewry, feelings of suspicion, unease and betrayal shaped Jewish attitudes to the world around them The Fate of Forced Converts  Maimonides o In his mind it was legitimate to fake a conversion to survive o Jews who have disguised their Judaism under the guise of conversion are known as crypto-Jews The Blood Libel and other Lethal Accusations  Blood libel against Jews refers to the accusation that Jews were guilty of various kinds of atroscities, most especially the killing of christians to use their blood to make the unleavened bread eaten during Passover and for other rituals (despite fact tht jewish law explicitly exhibits contact with blood)  Another anti-Jewish accusation known as host-desicration follows a similar trajectory o Officially recognized that the wafer used in the catholic ceremony of the Eucharist, the host, actually became the body of Christ during the ceremony doctrine known as transubtantiation o Some christians maintained tht the jews, believing in this doctrine themselves, stabbed and mutilated the host in a kind of reenatment of the crucifiction of Christ, allegedly causing bloodshed o Yet another kind of Anti-Jewish accusation was triggered by the Black Death  Epidemic of the bubonic plague and other contagious diseases that swept across Europe in 1347-1350  Many christians came to suspect the Jews of poisoning the wells out of malice and vengeance  Also had ideas of host desicration and blood libel  As accusation spread, more and more Jews were killed, expelled or martyred Economic Tensions  Jewish communities were entitled to legal protection not because they were citizens of a city or bc of privileges granted to them under earlier roman law but bc they were considered part of a ruler‟s estate  Royal protection was a major reason that the jews were able to live in medieval christian Europe  Since Jews were tied to the king as serfs, their freedom of movement was restricted- if they left the relam of their lord, they could in theory be forcibly returned  Jews were seen by the local population as a proxy for the king, and thus blood libel and host descecration doubled as a way for the masses to act out against rulers they resented  Promience as moneylenders o Variety of factors promoted moneylending among Jews  While they did own land, they had smaller plots than christians and they were not able to have slaves/ laborers  Blocked from various crafts by guilds  Christian opposition to christian usury recommended Jews as a logical alternative source of financing o Jewish moneylending also fostered animosity o Needy christians resented their dependence and indebtedness to Jews Increased Hostility from the Church  Church became increasingly hostile toward Jews, esp in the 13 century  New or renewed restrictions against Jewis-christian interaction were imposed  In some areas, Jews were required to wear a special badge or conical hat  Church did sometimes directly act against Jews o In 1236, a Jewish convert to christianity submitted a memorandum to Pope Gregory IX, claiming that the Talmud blasphemed Jesus and Mary and expressed hatred of non-Jews o The pope responded by ordering the confiscation and burning of the Talmud and other Jewish books  In many regions and for much of the time, Jews and christians interacted on a daily basis, engaged in trade, made loans to one another, employed one another for work, and attended one another‟s celebrations  Other Jews responded to christian mistreatment by emigrating th o By the end of the 15 century, large numbers of Jews migrated from western Europe to the more hospitable envt of central and eastern Europe o Poland and Hungary o By 1500 a majority of Europe‟s Jews lived in these areas, eventually become the home of the world‟s largest Jewish population Medieval Christian Spain  While the Jewish-Catholic relationship was always fraught, Jews did benefit from the fact that they were not muslims, the true enemy of Spanish Catholicism  Were thus able to find a place under chrisitian rule as courtiers, gvnt officials, financiers, traders, physicians, and diplomats useful for their ability to communicate with the Muslims in Arabic  Influence of Nahmanides and other distinct rabbis show that rabbnic scholars played an important part in communal leadership  Jews did face economic restrictions and legal discrimination of the sort we have observed elsewhere  A key turning point in the history of the Jews of christians spain came in 1391  Series of riots in which thousands of Jews were murdered or forcibly converted  Catholic church was intensifying its efforts to root out new christians who were secretly adhereing to Judaism  In spain in 1492 they issued an edict calling for the expulsion of all Jews from spain, except those willing to accept christianity  Total jewish population affected was 300 000 Rashi  Single most influential medieval Jewish commentator was Rashi  Transformed the nature of Jewish learning  Biblical commentary  Commentary on the Babylonian Talmud, essential to the study of that text in traditional Jewish schools as his biblical commentary is to the study of Torah  Commentary became an indispensible tool for understanding the Babylonian Talmud’s terminology and argumentation  His commentary has been included in almost every edition of the Talmud since it was first published n the 1400s Medieval England  Coming from northern England, William I “the conquerer” (r. 1066-1087) captured England in 1066, and most of the Jews who migrated there in the wake of his conquest were also French in origin  They came to serve the needs of the court, specifically to work as financiers o Brought with them expertise in moneylending and enough capital to begin lending immediately, the Jews who migrated there proved highly useful to William and his successors o After William I, Henry I (1100-1135) stands out as the most active king in Jewish affairs  Invoked the principle of the Jew‟s as the king‟s property, apparently granting them certain pivileges but also employing them to serve his own commercial interests  Under the reign of the crusader king Richard I (1189-99) religious zeal against non-christians and resentment against the Jewish creditors resulted in violence in London, York, and other towns o Massacre of 150 Jews in York in 1190  Greatest slaughter to ever take place in England  Over the course of the 13 century the kings of England restricted the scope of Jewish moneylending particularly in relation to papal policies  Situation of Jews worsened over the next few decades  Edward I (1272-1307)- jews were so financially weakened that they were no longer of use to the crown and in july 1290 the king ordered the expulsion of the Jews from England Medieval German-Speaking Europe  The crusades revealed the vulnerability of the Jews and their total dependence on protection from the authorities- and the inability or unwillingness of local authorities to provide such protection  In the later middle ages, jews became increasingly under the direct control of the emperor  While many Jewish communities were able to bounce back from the first crusaed, they faced perils in the 13 and 14 centuries, and the protectors that Jews had relied on in earlier centuries- the HRE and the pope were weaker in this period and less able to intervene on their behalf  By the end of the 15 century, Jews had been expelled from much of the HRE Beyond Catholic Europe  Christianity extended beyond the orbit of the catholic church, taking a very different form in southeastern Europe and asia minor th  By the end of the 11 century the Byzantines had lost their foothold in italy too, an dinvading Seljuk Turks captured much of the empire‟s heartland in asia minor in 1071  Situation for Jews under Byzatnine rule was different from that of Jews in catholic Europe  Byzantine Jews enjoyed a relatively stable existence compared to those of catholic Europe, where the Jews were the only non-christian minority  Jewish kingdom of the Khazars in eastern Europe Lecture Notes- October 11 , 2011 Jews in the Medieval European State  Background o Politically unstable and highly militarized  Knight on horsebck as quintessential feature o Fragmentation o Franc-process of centralization much more gradual  1180-1223-Philip Augustus  Make important contribution to centralization o HRE- monarchthas thccessors to Roman Empire and Carolingians  10 -12 century fairly strong authority, after that less power o Spain-1250 Muslim empire limited to Grenada o Expansion in 1000-1300  Demographic, territorial (crusades), urban  80% of all European cities were founded in this period  Expansion in the Jewish community  Many nobles encouraged their migration o Economic purposes o Contraction (1300-1500)  Black death  Stopped migration  Affected Jews negatively  Jews in European states o Shaky ideological foundation  No sense of obligation for christian rulers to protect Jews, like Muslim rule o Church and state  Papal policy does not equate as neatly as royal policy o Jewish utility and dependence  Jewish utility that was behind acceptance  Direct dependency on Jews on a central ruler  Could be beneficial bc of attacks on Jews  Ex. Crusades  What is Jewish relationship to rulers?  “Serfs” of the royal treasury  Could move freely in land, but theoretically could not move without permission of King (to another land)  Jews could be exploited to attain financial ends  Jews and Moneylending o Need for credit but church prohibitions  By all levels of society ie. Farmers, merchant, kings o Increasing commercial expansion o Church had serious problem with lending money and interest charged  Church prohibited christians from lending money to other christians  Not just christian thing, Jews and muslims as well  Due to interest o Jews edged out of landowning and international trade  Less need for Jewish intermediary between christians and Muslims  Could not compete with christian landlords, or
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