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Derek Penslar

HIS208 Final Exam Review Notes January 10 , 2012- Textbook Notes, Pgs 231-244 The State of the Jews, The Jews and the State  All these political transformations of the social order were preceded by and to a large extent inspired by the intellectual revolution of the 18 century known as the enlightenment  The leading figures of the enlightenment- men such as the French philsophes Montesquieu, Rousseau, and Voltaire; English economist Adam smith; and the german philsopher Kant proposed a refashioning of society based on reason, progress, faith in human ingenuity, and an abiding belief in the capacity of all people for improvement  The philosphes rejected all truth related to tradition and religious authority, championing instead a world where individuals, exercising their natural right to liberty, created new economic, political and social structures for the benefits of both individuals and the greater good Changing Boundaries in the 18 Century  Kehillot, autonomous communities, functioned on the basis of Jewish law and were served by a vast network of Jewish social welfare institutions and fraternities-hevrot- that provided for their members from cradle to grave  Jewish seperateness, however, did not mean cultural insularity, as Jews shared the cultural of their surroundings, even if they sometimes modified that culture to suit Jewish tastes and sensibilities  Jews also earned a living in ways that distinguished them from Non-Jews, most of whom were peasants engaged in agricultural production  Among the well to do, there was increasing fraternization among Jews and non- Jews  In central Europe, many of these conversions were undertaken out of frustration with continued anti-Jewish discrimination Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia and the Jews  FW, who reigned 1713-1740 was ill disposed towards Jews, esp poor ones  The various prohibitions against Jews increases their general poverty Cnt of Before  Prior to the revolution of 1789, the bulk of the French Jewish population was the approximately 30,000 Ashkenazim who lived in the northeastern region of Alsace-Lorraine  In particular, Jews became identified with hawking their trade in secondhand items, especially uthd clothing  Vast majority of 18 century Jews were impoverished  In the largest Jewish community in the world, that of Poland- Lithuania, the situation was quite different o By the 18 century the Jewish population was 750,000 o The kinds of residential and occupational restrictions and humiliating distinctions that were the lot of western European Jews were largely unknown or unenforceable in pre-modern Poland, particularly in the areas of greatest Jewish settlement o In those places Jews lived among christians and not separate from them, exhibiting a preference, however for living directly on or very near the market square, a sign of their deep involvement in the economic life of Poland o Magnates protected the welfare and security of Jews in return for their managerial and financial skills o The central role of Jews in the magnate economy can be measured by the fact that Jews comprised between 80-90 percent of merchants in many polish towns o Up to 60 percent of all domestic trade was in Jewish hands o Unlike their co-religionists in western Europe, the Jews of Poland were more closely tied to the rural economy, trading in agricultural goods between estates and local markets, where they were suppliers to villages and managers of the great estates  Arenda system- involved the leasing of large estates by polish lords to Jews who in return for paying rent to the nobleman, were granted monopoly on a host of commodities and means of raising revenue  Although the nobles kept most of the profits, the Jews were the ones most visibly associated with the alcohol trade th  By the last third of the 18 century, the economic security of Polish Jewry started to deteriorate as the polish aristocracy began to limit Jewish involvement in the alcohol trade o In addition to the economic incentive to keep Jews out of the alcohol trade came the accusation that they deliberately sought to ply the peasants with vodka to keep them drunk  The principal issue that confronted the council of the four lands was the apportionment and collection of taxes owed by the Jews to the Polish treasury o In 1764 the crisis of the Polish crown saw the implementation of fiscal reforms, one of which was the dissolution of the Council of Four Lands  Inspired by their non-jewish neighbors, Jewish participation in non-Jewish culture was increasingly in evidence prior to emancipation Jews Through Jewish and Non-Jewish Eyes  On the continent Dohm’s tract, which, ushered in the debate and spawned a vast number of publications on the Jewish question, was the first text that advocated the emancipation of Jews based on the enlightenment proposition that Jewish difference and deficiency was historical rather than innate o Nothing was inherently wrong with the Jews that would prevent them from fulfilling their obligations to the state o If christians treated them well, then Jews would respond in kind  Enlightener Naftali Herz Wessely published a Hebrew tract, without rabbinic approbation entitled words of peace and truth (1782) o Wessley claimed that two distinct varieties of knowledge existed- secular and religious knowledge o He held that familiarity with the former would enhance the capacity of Jews to appreciate better the divine teachings  On the eve of the revolution in 1789, the debate over what to do next with the Jews also engaged French intellectual circles th January 10 , 2012- Lecture Notes Review of Semester One  Modernity o Increased mobility  Jews moving around the world at a faster pace than before  New centers of Jewish life- Ottoman Empire o Rise of Jewish gvnt agencies beyond the community  Council of the Four Lands  Supranational o Explosion of Jewish knowledge  People want to know about Jews  Esp after renaissance  Production of more and more books about Judaism  Rise of printing press o Challenges to rabbinic authority  Shabbatai Zvi  Challenges to traditional forms of Jewish learning o Hybridization of Jewish identity  Jews begin to swim between forms of Jewish identity  Late-modernity o Rapid pace of change  Challenges become more overt instead of covert  Transition from internal to external challenges to system  Difference becomes an issue over which people debate fundamental avlyes  Rabbinic Judaism was a self-correcthng system  We get to a point in the 19 century where system no longer able to correct itself Transformations about Thinking about the Role of Jews in Politics in 17 and 18 th Century  In general Jews will be subject to changes affecting continent as a whole th  Ideas of inalienable rights in late 17 century  Assertion of authority to destroy all intermediary institutions o Late 17 century o Modern state tries to break down the state within the state o In Poland this is difficult bc monarchy is weak o Key of modernity is breaking down barriers between state  Mercantilism- increase and maximize wealth of the state o Done through increase of immigration, increase in exports, productive population at home o Ex. Bastards, bees and Jews essay  How do we make Jews as useful as possible? o Prejudice comes in o Assumption that Jews are not useful, against hard work o Habsburg empire 1 place to draft Jews into the army o Jews as being incapable of giving up their differences, cant help themselves th o Overwhelming thinkers of the 18 century were not secular th January 12 , 2012- Textbook Notes, Pgs 244-253 Jews and the French Revolution  The Sephardim of France became the first jews in Europe to enjoy complete equality  This situation meant tht Ashkenazim remained unemancipated and politically isolated  The issue played out a while longer until sept 28 1791 when the Ashkenazim were finally granted citizenship a  All the Jews of France had now been emancipated  Jewish emancipation went whenever Napoleon led his armies o Like the Jews of France before them, these Jewish comm. Would also enter unchartered territory as they sought to synthesize the demands of citizenship and Judaism  The emancipation of French Jewry did not end the debate on the Jewish question, serious doubts lingered about whether Jews could be regenerated  On july 29 1806 Napoleon convened an assembly of Jewish nobtables, a body of 112 distinguished lay and clerical jewish leaders from France and French controlled italy o The emperor put before the delegates a list of 12 questions designed to ascertain the relationship of French Jews to the state and to their fellow citizens  By 1812, when Napoleon failed to bring liberation to Jews of eastern Europe, they turned against him and like the majority of Europeans, eastern European Jewry likewise saw napoleon as a tyrant to be crushed, a symbol of a failed revolution  In 1808 Napoleon established the consistory, the formally constituted representative of French Jewry to the national gvnt in paris  At the same time N extended the anti-Jewish measures of Alsace o Infamous decrees limited their residence rights and suspened all debts owed to the for 10 years o Following Ns defeat and the restoration of the Bourbon monarch to the throne, the infamous decrees were not renewed and Judaism was accored complete equality with chrisitanity in 1831 o The state paid the salaries of consistory officials, something the revolution had guaranteed for christian denominations but not for Jews The Anglophone World  Facing few social or legal restrictions, anglo-Jewry became increasingly anglicized and materially comfortable  Community elites resented the discrepancy between their anomalous political status and their cultural and economic position  Over time Jewish legal disabilites were lifted o In 1830 Jews were able to open up shops in the city of London o In 1833 they were free to practice as barristers o In 1845 the municipal relief act permitted jews to take up all municipal officies o In 1854 and 56 jews were permitted to study at oxford and Cambridge  The one hurdle Jews in England were still unable to straddle was the taking of a seat in parliament o In 1858 Rothschild took a nondenominational oath that allowed him to become Englands first Jewish MP  English Jews were never as vigorous as their continental co-religionists in demanding the lifting of legal barriers; this came to pas bc over the 19 th century very few Jews felt aggrieved by the remaining disabilities in England  Compared with the situation on the continent the good fortune of Anglo- Jewry was enviable  In Canada, the first Jewish settlement dates back to 1759, Jews mostly settled in montreal and were engaged in the fur trade Jewish Emancipation in Southern and Central Europe  When the Jews of italy were emancipated in 1797 by Napoleonic forces, they were still a largely traditional comm. Living in ghettos first established in the 16 century  However they quickly embraced the social and economic opportunities that came in the wake of emancipation  After their newly won freedoms were rescinded in the wake of the Napoleon’s defeat, jews were drawn into the italian liberation movement and many became involved in secret revolutionary societies or “carbonari” o Thus the revolutionaries seeking to unify italy saw jews as reliable and ideal allied in the struggle against the forces of reaction o Italian Jews were deeply invested in the nationalization project o Italian Jews displayed a degree of loyalty and patriotism tht set them apart from other continental Jewries in two ways  Neither Sephardic or Ashkenazi  Italian Jewry’s distinctiveness was reinforced in the political realm  In central Europe Germany presents us with a somewhat different model of Jewish emancipation o The process was shaped by the fact that Germany did not become a unified state until 1871 o Emancipation was thus not considered an inherent right but a reward for a self-regenerative job well done (according to German authorities) o Second problem in germany that impeded full-scale jewish emancipation in germany stemmed from the challenge of emancipating a group within a society that was not yet fully emancipated o The rocky path of Jewish emancipation in Germany can be divided into three distinct phases  Between 1781 to 1815 “the Jewish question” was debated and certain legislative measures were enacted  Edict of 1812 which made Jews natives and citizens of the Prussian state with the same civic rights and liberties as those enjoyed by christians  Between 1815 to 1848  Staunchly opposed Jewish emancipation  Hep Hep Riots  In 1871 the year Germany became a unified state the country’s 512,000 Jews were finally emancipated, despite the fact that certain positions in the upper bureaucracy and officer corps still remained closed to them until the Weimar years, 1918-19333 Status of the Jews Under Ottoman Rule  When the reform decree of 1856, equality was explicitly granted to Jews and christians  This was amended once more in 1869 with the passage of new citizenship law that defined all Ottoman citizens as subjects of the sultan regardless of religion  Legal and social practice lay far apart o Bc Ottoman modernization was uneven and halfheartedly implemented, so too was emancipation  Without a thoroughgoing process of Ottomanization the Jews never developed the kind of attachment to Turkey and its languages that their co-religionists did January 12 , 2012- Lecture Notes Civil Improvement  Naturalization, civil improvement, emancipation o Naturalization- acquiring status of not being an alien in own country, no longer an alien o Civil improvement- individual is capable of being worthy of becoming a citizen through improvement  Ie. Jews taking on German names, not Hebrew name  Jews were expected to be useful to the economy o Emancipation- bestowal of rights upon and individual who has previously been deprived  Different than naturalization  Ex. From slavery to freedom  In England in the 1850s Jews gradually accumulate privileges, no law o 18 and 19 century growth of Anglo-Jewry o Jews tolerated o Became naturalized o Emancipation was limited to hold public office  German Lands o Edicts of Toleration- 1780s  Joseph II of Habsburg  Issued lots of edicts for people, not just Jews  Integrating them into state o Jews were expected to make radical changes in lifestyle due to edicts  Occupation  Education o Edict of 1812  In 1820, 30, and 40s Jews who wanted to live in German towns had to show proof of occupation  France has pure emancipation o Sephardics are emancipated first  Ashkenazi are 18 months later  Get all rights that French citizen has  However still sense that Jews need to give up dress, occupation to fit in  Tensions between Jews and non Jews do not disappear with emancipation o France removes Jews communal autonomy  New system of Jewish jurisdictional bodies  Consistory  Ex. Rabbis salaries, school curricula o Similar things happen in Europe  Modernity does not remove communal organizations of Jews, gvnt forces them / sets up new ones  Poland o No emancipation or naturalization o Worlds largest Jewish community- 750 000 thousand (18 century)  Later absorbed by Russia o Attempt to follow French model but fail  Weak monarchy, powerful nobility o Country imploding from within o Jews begin to speak up for rights (1790s)  Christians as well  In 1792 Poland collapses completely, in 1795 country has disappeared  So nothing happens o Country citizenship and municipal cithzenship  With development of liberalism in mid 19 century room for emancipation for Jews, as long as Jews have proper things (education, etc.) o Valuing humans on capacity and achievement not birth o Jews benefit from liberalism o Still great deal of discomfort with Jewish difference even during liberalism th January 17 , 2012- Textbook Notes, Pgs 260-267 Modern Transformations th  In the 18 century it was becoming more pronounced that the Jewish world, particularly in Europe was beginning to fracture o This was esp the case among Ashkenazim, the majority faction among world Jews th  Radically divergent policies across 18 century Europe also left a deep impact on the character of various Jewish communities  Advent of Hasidism and its opposition movement the Mitnagdism  Proponents of the Haskalah movement or Jewish enlightenment further contributed to the splintering of eastern European Jewry Partitions of Poland  Of one of the many developments to have an impact on Jews, the partitions of Poland proved ot be of most significance  Occurred in 1772, 1793, 1795  Russia took in approximately 750,000 Jews, while Austria took in 260,000 and Prussia 160,000  Council of the Four Lands was dissolved by parliament in 1764  The majority of Jews were found to be in eastern Europe, were steeped in traditional Jewish culture and were overwhelmingly poor Frankism  In the wake of the Sabbatean movement, various new religious experiments emerged among Jews in Poland  One of the most subversive was Frankism, named after its leader Jacob Frank o Claiming to be the reincarnation of Shabbatai Zvi and King David, Frank engaged in a number of practices and preached certain doctrines that were in deep conflict with Judaism o In 1759 Frank and 500 followers converted to Catholicism Hasidism  Advent in the 18 century  Hasidism refers to devout piety  Was a movement of religious revival based on charismatic leadership and stamped by mystical teachings and practices that originated in southeastern Polish province of Podolia in the 1750s  Founder of Hasidism is Israel Ben Eliezr, best known as the Ba’al Shem Tov o Acronym BeShT  The BeShT marked a shift from small to large mystical speculation  Hasidism proclaims the need for Jewish unity  In the formative period, Hasidism went through three distinct phases o First was during the lifetime of the BeShT, when a small clutch of disciples followed the Hasidic path  Must be stressed that the BeShT neither consciously created a movement nor did he found any institutions o In the second period, a leading figure was Rabbi Dov Ber of Mezerich  Hasidism was adopted almost exclusively amond Yiddish speaking Jews  In places where Jews spoke European vernacular languages- Hungarian in Budapest, German or Czech in Prague, and German in Poznan- Hasidism did not take root  Ignored by the authorities, Hasidism was free to branch out  Of particular importance was Ya’akov Yosef’s formulation of the doctrine of the tzaddik, or righteous man  Charismatic leadership became central to Hasidism, at the expense of normative rabbinic authority o The third phase of the movement was characterized by decentralization  Between the last quarter of the 18 century and the beginning of th the 19 century, the pattern of succession for Hasidic leadership was established and became dynastic  Hasidism grew rapidly in this third phase due to the work of Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Lyady (1745-1813)  He developed a distinct brand of Hasidism called Chabad, the largest of contemporary Hasidic sects  As a mark of intimacy Hasidim use the the more familiar and warmer sounding word rebbe instead of the formal rabbi to refer to the Tzaddik  One of the keys to Hasidism’s success was that it proved to be a “big tent” capable of encompassing Jews from all walks of life o Learned and uneducated jews, rich and poor ones, rural inhabitants, and those in cities were to be found among the ranks of followers  Essential to the Hasidic teaching was the need to ward off misery, which it was believed stood in the way of attaining devekut o Hasidism stressed that the way to Gd was through a joyous demeanor  The belief that Gd’s presence could be encountered in all life activities Mitnagdism  Initially Hasidism met with fierce opposition from learned elites o Early disputes centered around the Hasidic introduction of Kabbalah into the daily life of the masses  The opponents of the Hasidim crystallized into an identifiable group the Mitnagdim o They deplored the institution of the Tzaddik, which they saw as a threat to traditionally constituted authority o Appaled by Hasidims lack of attention to Torah, modes of prayer o Main opponent was Vilna Gaon  Led a revolution in the way that Jews studied, indicting a shift away from focus on codes of Jewish law to the Talmud o To achieve their goal, in two communities-Vilna and Brody- the Mitnagdim seized and burned Hasidic texts, had their leaders arrested, and forbade their followers all contact, esp of a religious nature with Hasidim o The battle against the Hasidim was motivated by two principle grievances  The first involved matters of faith  Second, the battle had a political dimension in that the traditional rabbinic elite felt its authority threatened by the increasing popularity of Hasidic rebbes  The religious revival that was Hasidism continued to blossom- within three generations of its founding, Hasidism captured the hearts and minds of nearly two-thirds of eastern European Jewry January 19 , 2012- Textbook Notes, Pgs 269-277 The Haskalah in Western Europe  Principal challenge faced by the Jews of western Europe at the start of the modern period was the claim that Jewish society was stuck in the past, that Jewish religion was wedded ot outdated traditions and needed to be radically modernized  The Sephardic converso experience that led to a radical critique of Judaism significantly differed from the contemporary Ashkenazi exp o Ashkenazi intellectuals formed a loyal opposition, a movement for change, with a clearly articulated ideology o Sephardim reactions of troubled and disaffected individuals  The reformist project- The Hakalah, or Jewish Enlightenment- is one of the most important developments in the entire history of European Jewry o Began in central Europe in the 1740s, and like the European Enlightenment, which was its inspiration its followers stressed the primacy of the individual o Seeking to wrest power from the rabbis, the Maskilim succeeded in creating the first secular ideology to capture the heart and mind of modern Jews o The Haskalah sought to reform Jews and Judaism by harmonizing religious and social life with bourgeoisie culture o Maskilim sought to cultivate those necessary virtues they believed to be absent in the core principles of rabbinic Judaism Berlin Brahmins  The emergence in Germany of an elite that stood apart from the rabbis was a consequence of the repressive legal code, the Jewry regulation issued by Frederick II in 1750 o Subordinating the authority of the Jewish community to the demands of the centralized state diminished the authority of the Kehilllah  The berlin Maskilim constituted a new social group in Jewish society  The Berlin haskalah emerged just at the time when Jews were absorbing secular European culture to a greater extent than ever before, even as Europeans had begun to debate the issue of Jewish emancipation  One of the truly innovative features of the Haskalah was that it broadened the demands of a few individuals into a movement that disseminated its demands in German- language periodicals, as well as in Hebrew prose, in Yiddish plays, and literary salons, forming what people call a Jewish “republic of letters”  This challenge to the rabbis did not make Maskilim enemies of religion  Maskilim were dedicated to reforming Jews to better prepare them to assume their place as citizens in a modern state  The new Jew would be a person who both adhered to Judaism and modern culture Moses Mendelssohn  In Germany the most visible symbol of the possibility of a Jews living in two worlds- the traditional Jewish and the modern secular- was the Berlin philosopher Moses Mendelssohn o 1729-1786 o Closest non- Jew friend was the playwright Gotthold Lessing whose drama the Jews was the first of atleast 50 German- language plays between 1750-1805 to portray the Jews in a positive light  This was no small thing  Rarely had a non-Jew spoken so warmly of Judaism  It was for most non-Jews, inconceivable, that one’s wisdom or moral character could be improved by friendship with a Jew  Early Maskilim had called upon jews to embrace all forms of Knowedge  All Maskilim esp physicians, repeatedly lamented Jewish intellectual inferiority and pleaded with their fellow Jews to acquire the rudiments of secular wisdom  In 1778, to assist the transformation of Jewish youth and lead them to an aesthetic awakening, Mendelssohn began the publication of his own German translation of the Bible with an accompanying Hebrew commentary o Called the Bi’ur o The translation into German became the staple of the Haskalah educational system o Mendelssohn saw it as a vehicle for exposing traditional Jews to modern culture, getting unobservant Jews to return to Judaism, as well as a means of weaning Jews from the general use of Yiddish and their reliance of Yiddish translations of the bible, two of which had appeared just a few years before the Bi’ur Educational Reforms in Berlin  In central Europe the Haskalah first spread through individual initiative and not through an organized movement  Then in Berlin in 17778, the first of the new Maskilic schools opened for instruction o Called the Jewish free school, it offered courses in Hebrew, German, French, arithmetic, mechanics, geography, history and natural science o Along with tutors and school teachers, physicians constituted the other group advocating changes in Jewish society Moses Mendelssohn’s Jerusalem  In 1783 he laid out the philosophical position of the Haskalah in his book entitled Jerusalem  Mendelssohn rejected all rligious instruments of coercion, such as excommunication and censorship  Mendelssohn held religious belief to be a strictly private matter and advocated freedom of conscience, as well as separation of church and state  According to M, Judaism did not constitute a revealed religion but a revealed legislation  Ceremony, he believed, also provided for communal distinctiveness and retention of Jewish identity  M expressed the opinion that Judaism was the ideal religion for the secular state bc it was free form supernatural dogma, embodying as it did the rationalistic principles from the enlightenment  M was not an advocate for Jewish emancipation or religious reform Literature of the Berlin Haskalah  M principles were more active than their master in promoting the cause of the haskalah  New publications were dedicated to spreading the Jewish enlightenment o Hebrew-language journal Ha’ meassef (the gatherer)  For that reason the language of the Berlin Haskalah changed to German, heralded by the publication of the journal sulamith  Harmonizing Judaism with European culture was the goal of the german Haskalah  After Mendelssohn’s death in 1786, the leadership of the German Jewish community passed to one of his disciples, David Friedlander o Mendelssohn’s principal objective was to share a common culture with Germans, Friedlander and other second-generation Maskilim who had already been reared in German-culture, their principle attainment of political equality o To their dismay, when in 1790 Jewish community leaders approached the Prussian gvnt to abolish this law, the gvnt refused  Abolishment of humiliating taxes on Jews, exclusion from state service o After jews were emancipated in 1812, Friedlander published a pamphlet arguing for religious reform  Called for the abandonment of Hebrew nd of the study of talmud  He emerged as a radical  At the 1813 elections Friedlander was overwhelmingly defeated  The Hakalah led to innovations in Jewish thought an pratice o Saul Ascher- Berlin, 1767-1822  Judaism was in possession of unique truths of which he identified fourteen  Ten were purely abstract articles of faith, and four were ceremonial practices  Later 19 century reformers would attempt to attenuate the ethnic dimensions of Judaism in the name of pure religion o Accompanied by changing terms, such as using the word temple instead of synagogue bc it was a universal word for house of prayer, and called for ex, Jews, Germans, French and Americans of the Mosaic persuasion The Sephardic Haskalah  Not only in the Ashkenazi world were the bible and other texts translated into German and Yiddish, but seminal religious texts were rendered in the Sephardic Diaspora o Most Jews knew little or no Hebrew and were increasingly reliant on the vernacular as a means of retaining their allegiance to Judaism and print culture The Haskalah in Eastern Europe  The H in EE was both similar and different from its counterparts in WE o Like WE Maskilim, EE Maskilim wished to bring about occupational and moral reform through the introduction of secular knowledge into the Jewish school curriculum  Many EE Jewish critics lamented that Jews were ignorant of the sciences, fearing that they were laughinstocks before the gentile world o Talmudist, turned Maskilim Solomon Maimon who criticized the traditional education system among EE Jews, said that after discovering the world of science he had found a key to all the secrets of nature o They embraced enlightened principles but did nto promote a systematic program of curricular and behavioral change  The Haskalah in EE did not fully emerge in full force until the 1820s o But when it did significant differnces from its German predecessors became apparent o First there was no substantive and intellectually prominent elite that pushed for greater contact with non-Jews o Scond the languages of the Haskalah in EE would be Hebrew and Yiddish o Third the EE Jew community compared ot the Jewish community in Germany, was more hostile to deviations of traditional behavior  The Haskalah in EE did not merge with reform Judaism as it did in Germany  Czar N I advocated the Haskalah among Jews hoping that it would lead to their integration into Russian society o This somewhat alienated them from Jewish society The Galician Haskalah  After Berlin and Konigsberg, the Haskalah spread into the Austrian empire, most prominently in the province of Galicia, an area that lay between Germany and Russia with a Jewish population of around 300,000 o However, Brody was not Berlin this ensured that the circumstances that prevailed there were diff from the German Haskalah  Socially a wide gulf separated Makilim from tth Jewish masses  Most EE Jews remained poor throughout the course of the 19 century and thus socially distant from the Maskilim in their midst  The Maskilim did not seek to destroy religion, rather they sought only to extirpate what they believed were the most obscurantist and superstitious manifestations of contemporary Jewish culture th January 19 , 2012- Lecture Notes th Polish Jewry in the 18 Century  Hasidism had tremendous appeal in Poland and after partitions o Becomes a mass movement o Ideological message of Hasidism does not alone explain its success  Campaigning  Printing  Had to develop a brand a brand, esp in mystical leader  In envts where native tongue is Yiddish, Hasidism flourishes, where they take on vernacular does not  No Hasidic movement in Prussian part of Poland  Seems to flourish in areas where gvnt ineffective in breaking down barriers between Jews and state  Haskalah- jewish enlightenment o Mean education o 18 century o Rational thinking o Not areligious o Haskalah was the Jewish equivalent of the Enlightenment o Someone who adheres to Haskalah is a Maskilim  Man of enlightenment  Male-centered movement  Will form new supracommunal institution  Rise of newspapers in 1770s  Invisible o Haskalah flourish in central Europe, in different area from Hasidim o Hasidism is a movement of mass religious revival, Haskalah is with rational secular thought  H was traditional in early phases, as it evolves becomes more radical  In tome of most radical phase they sought to overthrow traditional rabbinic Judaism o Conscious and deliberate rejection of Halakha in late stages  Decline in rabbinic in 18 century Europe o Mysticism is given bad name after Sabbatean controversy o Hasidism able to develop new approach to Jewish law  Rise of new jewish elite, no longer dependent on community o Begin to wear western clothes, shave beard o Loosen obedience ot Jewish law o Early 1700s beginning of traditional Jewish decline in community o Dvelopment of secular education  Study of science as a way to appreciate gds divinity in world o Jews should taken care of their own o Therefore gentiles will not catch Jewish “cooties”  Less focus on Talmud study, focus on biblical Hebrew o Notion that biblical Hebrew is clear, teach tem this and be able to think clearly then learn other things from that  New idea of well rounded Jewish individual with both Jewish and secular learning  Moses Mendelssohn o On one level MM deeply traditional Jew o Influenced by Chrisitian scholars of central Europe o Religious turth self-evident but some religious truths are arational th o MM is a product of the 18 cthtury protestant enlightenment o Both a medievalist and 18 century enlightenment philsopher o Religious figures begin to enter political discussion o Many of his followers after his death maintain his ideals o After his death Haskalah goes off  Conservative sect- reform Judaism form within  Radical faction in GRMNY  Subordinates Judaism to secular values  Haskalah as cultural renewal  Haskalah extremely influential, even though small number of them o Gave way to later movement  Moderate Haskalah is what spreads into EE January 24 , 2012- Textbook Notes, Pgs 282-288 Wissenschaft Des Judentums- Scientific Study of Judaism  The discipline of history is a product of modernity o Beginning in the second decade of the 19 century in Germany, the first Jeiwsh historians began to appear o Urgency for such a project came from a violent outburst of anti-Semitism in Germany  Hep Hep riots o To this end, in 1819 they founded the society for culture and scientific study of the Jews, thus inaugurating modern jewish scholarship known as the scientific study of Judaism  The proponents of the academic study of Judaism were motiaved by two main impulses o First was the wish to have it accorded the respect of inclusion in the university curriculum  Emancipation without respect would ring hollow o Second, prominent figures in the scientific study of Judaism movement feared that rapid and increasing social integration meant that not only non-Jews but Jews themselves needed to learn about the magnificence of Jewish religious culture  Conversion to Christiantiy was the most extreme expression of this “disintegration” which in the beg of the 18 century increased dramatically  The movements ideology held that in the academic study of Judaism “the bond of science, the bond of pure rationality and the bond of truth” would unite christians and Jews by erasing the differences between the two groups  The scientific study of Judaism remained enormously influential in three ways o First- it originated the critical, secular study of Judaism and Jewish history o Second- subsequent generations of scholars who remained wedded to the goal of preserving Judaism emerged o Three- later innovations in Judaism, such as reform, modern orthodoxy, and postive-historical Judaism owe their existence to the fact that leading figures in such developments were imbued with the historical spirit and methodological innovations ushered in by scientific study of Judaism The Rise of Modern Jewish Historiography  Leopold Zunz- 1794-1886 was a historian of Judaism and one of the founders of the Wissenschaft movement o Zunz was convinced that Jews had to apply the critical tools of modern scholarship to the examination of Jewish texts in the same manner that gois were doing this to their own sources o It was this, according to Zunz, that would mark the Jews as full participants in german culture bc through their use of history they would be treading an intellectual path similar to that of their christian neighbors  Isaac Marcus Jost- 1793-1860 o While Jost may have pioneered the writing of a comprehensive history of the Jews, the project was continued by Heinrich Graetz the leading Jwish historian of the 19 century  Graetz was an advocate for the Jewish people against the prejudice that had followed them throughout history  Was a romantic The Rise of Reform Judaism  The first synagogue in Germany to introduce aesthetic changes was the private service founded in Westphalia by the man known as the founder of Reform Judaism, Israel Jacobsen o Forced in 1817 by the Prussian gvnt to close o Jacob left Berlin and moved ot the more hospitable Hamburg  Hamburg- 1818 New Israelite Temple Association founded the Hamburg Temple o Introduced a German-language prayer book, which most significantly eliminated references to the coming of a personal messiah; and removed prayers that called for an end to Jewish exile and return to zion o The most imp opponent of the Hamburg Temple was Rabbi Moses Sofer  His yeshiva was the epicenter of the battle against Reform Judaism  Institutionally it took two generations for Reform Judaism to become firmly established in German congregations o After the founding of the Hamburg Temple, Reform houses of worship were not built in significant numbers until the 1830s  Most important development that facilitated the growth of reform theology and practice was the appearance in the 1830s of a new kind of rabbi o University educated, familiar with the secular disciplines of history, philology, philosophy and classics o The new German rabbi was heir to the Haskalah and often a proponent of Wissencraft  The new rabbinical elite brought a new sensibility to the practice and theology of Judaism o Abraham Geiger was the spiritual leader of reform Judaism  In contrast to Greatz, Geiger denied the national element of Judaism  Judaism did not really require the trappings of nationhood: a common language, and national institutions Rabbinical Conferences  Divisions soon began to appear not just between reformers and their opponents but among the reformers themselves, split between lay reformers and rabbis o To heal the fissures and to facilitate the broad acceptance of reform Judaism, the rabbi and publicist Ludwig Philoppson proposed that those dedicated to reform meet to confer about the most pressing issues facing the movement o Rabbinic conferences were held in GRMY in 1844, 1845, and 1846  Jewish leaders were not alone in seeking to define the role of religion in the modern world  Must stress that the aesthetics, ideology and sensibility of European reform did not resemble curthnt reform practices in the US o RJ in the 19 century still had segregated seating o Staunchly oppose Zionism January 24 , 2012- Lecture Notes  Connection between Haskalah and reform not precise o Not directly responsible  Mendelssohn converted Torah into German to bring back Jews who were assimilated o Traditional Jews could learn German o This is not the same thing as reforming religion, but reviving it  Early 19 century some Jews begin to argue that Judaism should be a universal natural religion o Jewish Greatest History” should be main things we live by  Development of Judaism as a natural religion not way of life o Transformation of faith, but nto by making overt demands o Start of reform movement  Removal of some commandments  You can have Haskalah without reform  You can have reform without Haskalah  Germany one place that has reform movement o Reform vs reform o Why Germany?  Place where Jews were constantly under pressure to change  German Jews lived in a more philosophical world culture  Jews allowed to attend university and get doctorates  Small but increasing number of German-Jewish males grappling with their faith o Transforming Jewish pratice o From service to Gd to personal enhancement  From enlightened man to sentimental (metro) man? o Celebration of emotion and feeling o Jewish men less likely to be a Talmudic scholar o More turn toward ethics, goodness, charity  Mid 19 century Jewish Reformation o Subject Judaism to a reformation o To a religion based on text and commandments to a new one based on feeling and charity o More roles for women, as less involved in talmud study o JR will begin with small things  Rabbis  Riding of old customs  Chicken for Kapporut  In 19 century rabbis begin giving sermons January 26 , 2012- Textbook Notes, Pgs 267-269, 288-293 The Volozhin Yeshiva  The Mitnagdim followed the practical lead of Rabbi Hayim of Volozhin  Mitnagdim were emboldened by their cuase by having behind them Lithuanian Jewry’s most prestigious institution the Volozhum Yeshiva, or Talmud academy o Established in 1803 o Became a new type of educational institution, one which reshaped the religious culture of EE Jewry  Previously Torah study generally took place in a study hall adjacent to a shul  Volozhin did not train young men to become rabbis  Talmud study was undertaken for its own sake and not for the purpose of making legal decisions or in the same of ecstatic and mystical fulfillment, as was the case among the Hasidim  Students lived off stipends granted by the Yeshiva, which had raised funds for that purpose  They were fast becoming a new elite  Stressing critical analysis above received wisdom, Volozhin fostered the questioning of authority, albeit in the circumscribed and tightly controlled culture of the yeshiva  In a world dominated by tradition, this encouragement of independent though marked a significant concession to the age and to the sensibilities of modern culture Israel Salanter and the Musar Movement  Increasing laxity of religious practice also began to take root in the Jewish world of 19 century EE  Rabbi Israel Salanter- Musar Movement o Hoped to foster a spiritual and ethical revival within Lithuanian Jewry o Musar came to dominate the world of Lithuanian yeshiva and competed with the intellectual approach of Volozhin o Stress on the cultivation of the individual personality, while owing nothing to the formal teachings of modern psychology, was nevertheless reflective of the modernizing age in which he lived, with its emphasis on self- analysis and personal growth  Rabbi Esriel Hildesheimer opened the first yeshiva in the modern world, which included the teaching of secular subjects  In the early phase of EE religious revival the opposition to Hasidism was as fierce as the loyalty it got th o In the early 19 century the feud between the Hasidim and Matnigdim lessened in intensity o In defense of religious practice and toah study, the two most powerful forces of EE Judaism formed a unified front to combat what the rabbis and rebbes saw as the dangers of modernity o Both H and M came to reject all secular study to an ideological extent that was new in Jewish history  In 1892 russian authorities sanctioned the Volozhin yeshiva for its refusal to offer more secular subjects by closing the place down o Although it reopened a few years later, it never regained prominence Pgs 288-293 Neo-Orthodoxy  The increasing prominence of the reformers inspired the growth of conservative reaction  Went on the defensive in response to actions of the reformers o Leader of what became known as Neo-Orthodoxy was Samson Raphael Hirsch from Hamburg  Most famous work- The Nineteen letters inaugurated a new form of Judaism  Modern-orthodoxy that embraced rather than rejected modern orthodoxy  Hirsch sought to integrated secular and Judaism culture  Mendelssohn saw them as compatible but two separate spheres  Torah im derekh erets- fulfillment of which was to combine a commitment to Torah with active participation in the life and state of society  This is what it so different from before Positive- Historical Judaism th  Third significant stream of Judaism to emerge in the middle of the 19 century was termed PH Judaism  Zacharian Frankel was the founding figure of what would emerge in the US as Conservative Judaism o PH came from Frankel’s belief that Judaism was a “positive”, divinely revealed, and therefore could not be changed by rabbinic fiat  Frankel rejected unbending orthodoxy as well as radical reform  Was in favor of moderate accommodation Religious Reform Beyond Germany  Liberal Judaism spread to other parts of Europe, usually in a far more conservative manner and at a much slower pace than in Germany o One imp exception was Hungary  Rapid  Prior to 1867, year of emancipation, every jew in Hungary by Civil law had to belong the a local congregation, all of which were Orthodox o In England two shuls broke from the establishment  In 1810 London Synagogue of British Jews  Most important social innovation was one that brought together Ashkenaz and Sephardim as congregants o In France reforms were undertaken under the auspices of the central consistory New Synagogues and the Architecture of Emancipation  Jews began to build synagogues that served as architectural declarations of their residential permanence, as well as announce to their neighbors that they were both proud of their jewishness and identities st January 31 , 2012- Textbook Notes, Pgs 253-258 Russian Jewry and the State  In the 19 century Russian was home to the world’s largest Jewish population- 5 million o Vast majority of the world’s Jews, those in eastern Europe, remained unemancipated, a condition that would prevail until the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 th o Virtually no Jews were in Russia in the 18 century, came with the Polish partitions  With the partition of 1772, Russian inherited the lion’s share of polish Jewry, approximately half million o Initially coming under Russian control did not siginificantly alter Jewish existence o Jews continued to enjoy considerable social and cultural autonomy and lived in separate estate among a host of other ethnic minorities in the western borderland regions of Russia  Middle of the 19 century, offical policy underwent a change designed to handle to rising number of Jews  Overwhelming majority of Jews in Russia retained their own languages; Yiddish and Hebrew, engaged in their own forms of dress and occupation; and operated a vast network of legal, education, and charitable institutions, all of which went to ensure a deep sense of religious and ethnic distinctiveness  We must be cautious before branding Russian policy towards Jews as driven by anti-Semitism pure and simple o Sometimes it was, but at other times Jews were treated no different (even if badly) than other groups in Russian society  Russia’s first great acquisition of Polish jews during the reign of CTG o At first amenable to the Jews, she somewhat like Napoleon, was responsive to complaints about them from various quarters, esp merchants  In 1764, when Catherine issued an invitation to foreigners to settle in Russia, she explicitly excluded Jews   Jewish autonomy remained intact, negating the potential impact of the inclusion of Jews into Russia’s estate system  Complaints from christian merchants about Jewish competition and Catherine’s fears of social reform in the wake of the French Rev led to a passage of a law in 1791 that confined Jews to the newly acquired territories o Pale of settlement  1791-1917  The Pale was a vast area covering 386,100 square miles, approximately by the size of France, Germany, and Austria combined o Abolished with the February rev of 1917  Statute of 1804 concerning the organization of the Jews, was Russia’s first basic law pertaining to Jews o Jews were banned from selling alcohol in villages, which until them had been a major source of income for large numbers of Russian Jews o Many of the provisions in the 1804 statute were never effectively enforced o Reforms had little impact, and jewish society continued to find itself in desperate straits  The Jewish policies of successive Tsarist regimed were confused and confusing and ranged from benevolent paternalism that aimed at integration of the Jews to crueler forms of forced assimilation o There were harsh decrees issued to integrate and russify the jews and equally harsh decrees to drive the Jews out of Russia o Reign of Tsar NI exemplified the tension between integrationists efforts and conversionist agenda of imperial gvnts o Whereas Jews had previously been exempt from military service upon payment of a tax, in 1827 Nicholas withdrew that option for a majority of them  Now most Jews were subject to conscription for a period of 25 years o Jewish communities were fractured by the policy bc the Tasr left the recruiting up to the Jewish communities  Jewish conversion rates among draftees were lower than among other sectarian groups o The communal administration of the draft bred corruption  Wealthy Jews paid for replacements, while the poor had no resources to secure the release of their sons  Resentment, trauma and class conflict among EE Jews excacerbated social divisions created by Hasidim, Mitnagdism, and the Haskalah o NI goal of using the military to promote the integration of ethnic minorities into Russian society was by and large a failure  Esp as it pertained to Jews  By law Jewish and non Jewish soldiers were distinguished from one another; Jews were barred from joining certain units and were subjected to different criteria for promotion  The cantonist exp left deep psychological scare upon Russian Jews and their descendants o “Committee for the Determination of Measures for the Fundamental Transformation of the Jews in Russia”  Determined that Jews could never be fully integrated into Russia without first undergoing moral and cultural transformations o To make effective use of the schools and rabbinate required that the Kahals be abolished, this happened in 1844  Many continued to operate clandestinely o AII, AIII, and NII Russian policy twards the Jews change from the integrationist models of the early Czars, however imperfect they may have been, to exclusionary ones  Prior to WWI 80% of Russians were illiterate, almost all Jewish boys and girls could read and write Yiddish o By 1900 over 30% of jewish men and and 16% of Jewish women could also read Russian  Official end of the kahal in 1844 and the impact of the draftng of recruits led to a crisis of communal authority o New leader arose who bore different credentials from the previous leaders of EE Jewry o Now they were wealthy, young merchants  As important as this group was, it was unable to substantially alter the economic or political lot of most Jews  AIII set out to stymie the integration of Jews into Russian society and esp curb Jewish access to higher education and entrance into the professional elite, a development increasingly apparent in the previous reign of AII o AIII policies and those of NII marked a significant and overt attempt to use laws and ordinances to reverse the integration of Jews into Russian society  Establishment of a Duma in 1905 saw an odd situation arise, whereby Jews, granted the electoral franchise and permitted to organize political parties were elected to the Duma or parliament  Despite the reactionary policies of both AIII and NII, Jewish social and cultural integration proceeded apace without the granting of formal emancipation  On april 2 1917 the Decree Abolishing Religious and National Restrictions proclaimed that all restrictions be abolished  Despite this, as in 18 century France, soviet Jews would be denied everything as Jews and granted much as soviet citizens st January 31 , 2012- Lecture Notes Russian Jewry  Orthodox as being different and guardians keeping faith alive  Orthodoxy was in central Europe  Hasidism and Mitnagdism was in EE o Hasidism not modern movement, rises from within traditional movement o Mitnagdism skeptical of mysticism, rebbe (like saint worship)  Mid 1800s and beyond  Share common enemy western Europe Haskalah  What is meant by Eastern and Western Jews? o Habsburg Empire- 40 million people, 1 ½ million Jews  Poland, Galicia, Hungary, and Czech most important Jewish settlements (2/3 of empires Jews)  Few hundred families own 43% of Galicia  Still very much old fashioned Polish feudal system  Live under harsh taxes than any other Jews  In 1848 revolutionary very important for Habsburg empire o Became modern only in 1848  Jews get western European rights, rights to move etc  That is why they were so supportive of the Rev o In 1848 emancipation of Habsburg Jews  Sketchy situation as some Jews become western while some become eastern o Beg of 1850s in Hungary, Bohemian lands Jews beginning ot be invited to the casino (social gathering place)  Status begins to improve in 1850s and 60s o Galicia still has 18 century style society  Run by nobles  Own vast amount of property  Jews very poor, no economic mobility  Tradition- Hasidic o Jews vastly different throughout empire  Russian Jewry is the largest Jewish community in the 19 century o Took over most of Polish Jews after 1790s partitions o Stuck in Pale of Settlement- mostly old Polish lands o Pale- Black sea to Baltic Sea o 5 million by 1880s  Where come from?  Nobody knows  Lower infant mortality rate  Their babies less often died than Christians  Lower alcohol consumption among pregnant Jewish women  Jews consumed less alcohol than Russians o Presence of Jews felt to be profound threat to Russian state  Jews as economically harmful  Jews as peddlers to peasants- upset peasants o Fear of Jews in countryside esp o Jews in Russia lived in villages, cities, shtetls  Shtetl- Yiddish, little city  Most Jews in Russia (at first, later 1800s) lived in shtetls  Small towns few thousand people, 40s and 80% Jewish  Backbone in Jewish life was the shtetl  Jews as military contractors, collected taxes o Jews cannot work in gvnt service, limits in occupation  Small Jewish middle class  In 1860s- if well off Jews could live outside the Pale- tny %  In 1897-300,000 did not live in Pale  95% do o How does Russia solve Jewish problem?  Cannot emancpate Jews bc have no emancipation themselves  Not modern, pre-modern  Western ideal of gvnt not present  Based on principle of autocracy  In Russia no rights, privileges  At a time when most countries breaking down barriers, Russia building them up, opposite of other countries nd February 2 , 2012- Textbook Notes, Pgs 277-282 The Russian Haskalah  From the Galician center of Brody, the Haskalah moved into the Russian empire  Famous book for movement- Testimony in Israel o The impact of TII was enormous bc its apparance signaled a break between moderate Haskalah and Talmudic circles in Vilna  The Haskalah spread throughout EE thanks to the establishment of modernized state-run Jewish schools  In the reign of AII when social benefits of secular schooling became evident- a university degree was the passport out of Pale of Settlement- Jewish students began to seek entry in Russian institutions of higher learning for the first time  As part of his program to encourage the social integration of Russian Jewry, NI charged his minister of education to sponsor a program of “offical enlightenment” o Included the creation of a network of reformed schools, two modern rabbinic seminaries, and the enactment of a set of regulations restricting certain customs, deemed superstition and a barrier to enlightenment  These included prohibtions on tradional Jewish garb and early marriage  Czar averred that the purpose of educating the Jews is to bring about their gradual merging with christian nationalities, and to uproot those superstitions and harmful prejudices which are instilled in the Talmud Haskalah and Language  Language formed a key component of the modern Jewish exp o Four essential Maskilic positions reflected the welter of Jewish cultural predispositions  Generational, socioeconomic realities, and political inclinations  In both central and eastern Europe early Maskilim favored the use of Hebrew  In a Russian census of 1897, 97% of respondents claimed that Yiddish was their mother tongue o Yiddish was the language of millions  By the middle of the 19 century the shtetl had begun to go into economic decline o Theme of shtetl backwardness was a predominant theme in Haskalah literature  Yiddish was elevated to the status of great European literature  Principal theoreticians of Yiddishim were the Jewish nationalist Nathan birnbaum, who also coined the word Zionism, and the philosopher, literary critic, political activist and architect of secular Jewish culture Chaim Zhitlovsky  The orthodox embraced Yiddish, they used it to stem to tide of secularization nd February 2 , 2012- Lecture Notes Russian Jewry (Continued)  Promise of Jewish emancipation would be very slow o Gradual change  Russian state is trying to embrace some aspects of modernity (19 century) o 19 century o Demographics o Creation of huge bureaucracy  In 1844- claims it will abolish kihal, self-rule o Not what happens o Still have all kinds of independent power- courts etc o Jewish community now has to give all records to municipal authority o Weird mix of staying the same and modernity o Jewish community sometimes ignores new gvnt, hard to break tradition o Idea of crown rabbis  Provide info to state about what is going on  Jewish community does not respect them  Trying to keep track of Jews is difficult o Move around o Important for conscription purposes o Jews have many different names o Accuse Jewish community of dodging draft board  Russian gvnt tries to dictate Jewish appearance and dress  Kippah tax- 3 rubles  In 1855- AII stops this o Unusual  Jews are targeted for conscription o In 1855 new 6 year term o So were other communities o Not as bad as thought o Most adult men did not convert o Jewish community had to give quotas of soldiers o Children given in place of rich older families sons o Came out of it Russian and Jewish  Russian Jews  Conscription (1860s-70s) had hope of being accepted o If student in yeshiva exempt from draft o Erly 18- mid 1800s yehiva development huge institutions  Northern Pale  Harvard, Yale etc of Yeshivas o In part response to draft, unintended consequence  Deeply anti-Semitic o Youd think that in Russia would not be hopeful intelligensia o Much stronger traditionathcurrent o Even in Russia (mid 19 ) small Russian Haskalah movement  Hopeful Haskalah in Russia  No reform movemnt in Russia o Bound to Jewish tradition o If no reference group to want to emulate  Russian Haskalah movement hated Hasidism movement  One percent of Jews became farmers in 19 century Russia  Alexander II o Jews have some reason to be hopeful o One year emancipation – Napoleon, sep legal status  Kingdom of Poland  In 1862- Jews of Poland officially emancipated  Own land, study at universities  Ended in 1863 with rebellion  In 1860s small number of Jews lving outside of Pale o If done certain things  Veteran, rich o Begin to accultrate, russify o 5% by 1890s  In 1850s Jews allowed into Russian highschools  1870s enter university  In 1886- 15% of all univserity students are Jews o Overrepresented in high schools and universities  Jews begin using the system, not rabbis o Esp when, no get th February 7 , 2012- Textbook Notes, Pgs 294-309 The Politics of Being Jewish  What typified and conditioned Jewish existence in the modern period was the desire to move to cities o Jews left smaller towns for expanding urban areas  The reactions depended on whether one saw Jewish social mobility and increasing prominence in European afthirs as a positive or negative development  Over the course of the 19 century, the number of Jews in the world increased dramatically  In 1800 the Jewish population stood about 2.7 million, the number rose to 8.7 million in 1900 and then over 12 million in 1910  By 1900 82% of the world’s Jews lived in Europe o Nearly 50% of those lived in the Russian empire  What contributed to Jewish population growth were high birth rates and low death rates o Low alcoholism o Fewer offspring meant more resources o Breast-fed for longer time o Stay at home mothers in west o Better hygiene habits A Shtetl Woman  In eastern Europe Jewish women often worked outside the home and were integral to the Jewish as well as local economy  Women made it possible with the labor for their devout husbands to study torah and have conversations with the messiah  She brought together the jews and the village, the gentile world The Move to Cities  Despite the decline of population growth jews remained highly visible due to urbanization, a process that began among Jews before it reached the general population  Greece, Salonika- by 1900 Salonika had a Jewish population of 90,000, a full half of the entire population o Decline was attributed to Greek nationalism o In 1917 massive fire that led to homelessness among Jews, and gentiles stole their land on opportunity  In EE Jews were leaving their small villages and moving to nearby large cities  In Warsaw, which would become the largets Jewish city in Europe, a Jewish population of 12,000 in 1804 had by 1910 climbed to 337,000 or 37% of the total population  Even in cities where the absolute numbers of Jews was not large their percentage of the total population stood well above 50%  NYC soon grew into the largest urban Jewish center in history o By 1917 1,503,000 Jews called NY home and comprised a full 26.4% if Americas largest city  From across North Africa all the way to Iran Jews were to be found in mot cities  Living in large cities had a significant impact on Jewish society and culture  Zionist sought to transform Jews by returning them to agricultural work, while enemies of Judaism pointed to their urbanization as a symbol of their divorce from the rural soul of the nations in which they lived  City life also had an effect on the occupational choices of Jews: they tended to enter industrial, commercial and professional occupations  Making the most of the opp afforded to them by moves to the city, jews became extremely prominent in all spheres of commercial and intellectual activity  An unforeseen response to Jewsh success and cultural integration was Anti- Semitism Modern Anti-Semitism  Modern period has seen jews become heavily involved in politics  The politics of AS is one such case o AS, and ideology that sought to attribute contemporary social ills to the Jews, actually led them into politics in the hope of forging responses to a wide variety of accusations directed at them  Modern AS is characterized by ideological claims and organizational features that mke it different from traditional Anti-Judaism o Formation of political parties dedicated to AS o AS as more racial and ethnic than Anti-Judaism o After assimilation still jews, in AJ after baptism not Jewish o More false AS  New radical right, esp receptive of AS The “Jewish Question”  Movement of Jews into the public sphere led to the emergence of a new wide European about Jews known as the “Jewish question” o Applied to the new problem of a secular Jew  Claim that Jews possess and immutable collective loyalty and essence and plot against the rest of the world lies at the heart of modern antisemtism  By the 1860s and 70s legal emancipation of central and western Jews was a fact  European Jews were increasingly secure and confident of their place in secular political order  For many jews (and for some non-jews), the “Jewish question” had been solved o Backlash came at a shock  The persistent refusal to the Jews to disappear frustrated many Europeans- both antisemities and philosemites  Fields of journalism, art and popular entertainment also proved attractive to Jews  The advent of anti-jewish political parties, associations, clubs and organizations, whether based on economic religious, and racist principles, is one of the most important distinguishing features of modern anti-Semitism Antisemitism in Germany  In the 19 century the major supporters of German AS parties came from the lower-middle classes hit hard by the economic depression of 1873, for which they blamed Jews  Within a very short period of time, most German Jews became solidly middle- class, earned more than their non-jewish neighbors, achieved higher levels of education than Germans and played a vital role in the cultural life of the nation  Europe’s first AS political party- the christian social workers party- emerged in Berlin in 1878 o Headed by Adolf Stocker o In 1892 the Tivoli Program  Approved of AS as a poltical agenda  It is no accident that AS jointly opposed liberalism, 85% of German Jews voted for liberal political parties o AS proved to be a great political unifier  Wilhelm Marr invented the term AS o Believed Jewish racial peculiarities made it possible for non-jews to live on an equal footing with them o Inevitably, predicted marr, an apocalyptic race war between Jews and Germans would erupt  In 1880-1881 the infamous AS petitions was presented to German chancellor Bismarck o 250,000 signatures o Demanded immigration restrictions, the dismissal of jews from gvnt jobs, judiciary and higher education; and the separate registration of Jews according to religion in all surveys o Bismarck refused to accept it  In 1882 the First International AS Congress in Dresden o Attendees at the convention demanded the establishemt of a “Univsersal Christian Athiance” to combat Jewish influence  By the end of th 19 century; the medieval charge that Jews ritually killed Christian children and used their blood to make Matzah was back  Chamberlain was one of Germany’s most prominent and well connected AS o Championed the theory of Nordic supremacy, depicting history as a cataclysmic struggle between the Aryan and the semite o AS repeatedly evoked this dark fantasy- that they were losing control of their nations to the Jews they had emancipated o Hitler referred to him as the prophet of the Third Reich  Important to recall that despite the rampant AS sentiment that swept over Germany, it was not matched by a retraction of the Jews newly won legal rights nor any dimunition in the social and economic gains AS in Austria  Vienna was the most intensely AS city in central Europe  Jews of the city were of two types o First was the acculturated German- Speaking minority that included famous writers o Second was the majority, composed of Yiddish-speaking Jews who had moved to Vienna from the Austrian hiterland, primarily Galicia  The Prussian victory over Frnce in 1870 inflamed nationalist passions  In a muncipal election of 1897, lueger’s campaign motto encouraged all AS of the world ot unite o Made AS a respectable and winning political formula  Liebenfels was a major influence on Hitler and represented an extreme secular anti-Semitism o Extolled racial purity, supported eugenics, and selective breeding, and declared Jews to be subhuman, recommending they be castrated AS in France  Been two major sources of AS in modern France: o Right- and left wing o Right wing AS originated in royalist and conservative roman catholic and protestant circles  Sharpened by the Dreyfus affair, one of the nineteenth century’s most dramatic manifestations of AS  In 1894 a Jewish army officer Alfred Dreyfus was falsely accused of spying for Germany o Took on even greater sig when Emilie Zola resurrected the case in 1898 in the cause of his innocence o In 1899 granted presidential pardon, but not public furor forced a delay in his full exoneration until 1906 o The nation was split o French AS on the left dismissed or at least minimized the achievements of the French revolution, claiming that true freedom had yet to be attained  Damascus affair- 1840  Eight individuals were accussed of blood libel for a christian monk in Damascus  Imprisoned an tortured  Contributed to the growth and emergence of the popular Jewish press  All of which helped spread the word of the Damascus affair, the Jewish press transformed a local issue into a modern, international media event o Journalism and press became an important means of discussing the Jewish question, also became a popular career path for Jews o The events in Damascus spurred Jews into collective action; they were unwilling to suffer silently; they would now protest injustices with all the means at their disposal o Philanthropy emerged as a major goal of western Jews, prepared to more than ever to assist their needy co-relgionists in the ME and in EE o Like in Austria and German, French AS did not succeed in disenfranching the Jew and their integration across western Europe continued AS in Italy  AS was not a constitutive factor of political life in Italy  Mortara affair of 1858 evinces the effects of AS even in the absence of Jews in the struggle between Catholic and secular, nationalist values  In 1870 italian troops entered rome and the temporal power of the popes which had lasted for a thousand years came to an end th January 9 , 2012- Textbook Notes, Pgs 309-313 Anti-Semitism in Russia  After 1881 the state sought to purposely exclude Jews, and their situation among Russia’s minorities became anomalous  From that time until the fall of the Romanovs, a series of laws and ordinances, out breaks of violence, and new forms of accusations constitute a transformed response to Jews, one where Russia joined the ever rising chorus of AS sentiment heard across Europe but with more dramatic and longer-lasting consequences  For the masses of poor Jews, AIII’s counter-reaction had a profound impact on the Jewish economy o Imposition of economic and professional quotas  By 1900 much as 35 percent of Russian Jewry received poor relief of one sort of another  More Jews were driven by poverty and despair, rather than political idealism, to either Zionism or Jewish socialism in the belief that either movement could effort a panacea for the economic plight of Russian Jewry  Jewish intelligensia also suffered with quotas on military medical academy  1881 a series of riots swept through Russia o Pogrom o Radical terrorism- people’s will  Although the gvnt did not orchestrate the pogroms local authorities rarely intervened, and light sentences were meted out for those perpetrators who were arrested  May Laws- 1882 o Promulgated after the 1881 assassination of AII, and demanded that Jews move to urban areas from villages and rural settlements located outside of cities and towns o In their new locations, they had little prospects for employment and the general economic and social conditions were bleak o Jews could not buy or rent property, other than their own residences, were ineligible for civil service jobs and were forbidden to trade on Sunday and Christian holidays  Throughout 1905-1905 series of pogroms sweeping through Russia o Czar failed to so much as condemn the pogromists, let alone compensate Jews for their losses  Jews felt abandoned by mother Russia  Russia’s most lasting contribution to modern AS is the Protocols of the Elders of Zion o Concocted by members of Russian secret police in Paris sometime between 1896 to 1898 o The protocols purport to be the minutes of a meeting of Jewish elders plotting world domination  February 1911, liberals in the Third Duma introduced a proposal to abolish the Pale of Settlement o Tidal wave of right-wing and monarchist organizations objected strongly February 9 , 2012- Lecture Notes The Jewish Question and Anti-Semitism  France  Dreyfus affair affected France as well as divided it  Whole notion that Jews instituted rapid social change th  France most AS in 19 century  Not fair to argue that modern AS was only right-wing  In 1905 separation of church and state in France  In terms of AS do not think in white and black  Germany o German created Term AS- Marr o AS parties did flourish in 1880/90s, sole purpose of party was AS  Left behind residue that if on the right wing side of politics had to have some sort of AS in party o To be an AS was to oppose nouveau riche, decline in moral standards, to believe in social order is being threatened, fundamentally nostalgic, code  Italy o AS never took hold in Italy, which is odd bc it should have o Had Jews in high places in army o Clergy in italy hated italian kingdom, Jews  Recipe added up  Church did try to stir AS o Italy had a small Jewish population o Very liberal kingdom o Catholic church beaten back, Vatican inside Vatican city  Russia o Largest number of Jews, doesn’t know what to do with them o Jewish problem in Russia is nationality  Considered separate nationality, not allowed legal self-rule (others were)  Yet there had been signs of improvement in 1860s/70s  Begin to deteriorate in 1880s with assassination of AII  Rise of radical parties, social revolutionaries  Association with Jews and left made clear  Finance ministers like Jews  Interior ministry did not like Jews o Jews made and sold alcohol  Want to kick Jews out of university  Hot beds of radicalism  Might be revolutionaries  End up going to Switzerland and France o In 1905-1906 Jews in revolutionary Duma  Jews become disillusioned with reform due to Duma failure  NII AS  Still don’t know what to do with the Jews o Emigration- 1/3 of Jews did leave Russia  1880-1914  Went to North America, Australia, South America  2 million  Gvnt did not make it easy for them  Russian gvnt could not accept principle of freedom of movement despite wanting to get rid of the Jews o Conversion did not happen  Gvnt did not make no serious effort to convert Jews to christianity o Death- not that many Russian Jews were killed between 1880-1914  Bursts  Local initiatives, druken mobs  Way of venting popular frustration  Pogrom-creation 1882  Gvnt did not like pogroms  Why? o Not free and open society, do not have freedom to create violence o Gvn afraid of violence, bc after done with Jews where will it go? o Protocols of the Elders of Zion  Nt by high official/ in Moscow  Actually written by mayor and police chief  Fear of Zionism and Jews  Product of decentralized society, deeply AS, rarely initiating attacks from above o Mendel Bayliss accused of killing chrisitian child  Czar believed in it  Two Jewish martyrs- Dreyfuss and Bayliss th February 14 , 2012-Textbook Notes, Pgs 313-326 The Paths Jews Took  If one general statement can be made, it is that nowhere did Jews sit passively in the face of economic misery and AS  Essentially we can identify three major Jewish responses to these events o Rise of modern Jewish politics, basically socialism or nationalism o An activist response among western European Jews characterized by the development of Jewish advocacy and philanthropic organizations o Mass migration out of Europe The Rise of Modern Jewish Politics  Toward the end of the 19 century young jews, energized by frustration and inspired by hope turned to mass politics o Jews in Russia were far more involved and interested in political acitivty than their emancipated co-religionists in western Europe  Jewish socialism o Jews first became involved in left-wing politics in central Europe o Rosa Luexmberg o Leon Trotsky o The Bund  In 1897 in Vilna with the founding of the Bund, many of the Bund’s early leeaders were revolutionaries estranged from their Jewish roots  By 1903, the plight of the Jews in Russia had become clearer o the Bund leadership, and demanding autonomy- they wanted the social democrats to represent them as “the sole representatives of the Jewish proletariat”  The Bund’s influence grew quickly among Jewish workers, particularly in the northwest  Bund sought to address a variety of cultural issues that related specifically to the needs of the Jewish worker  By creating a sort of de facto national army, the Bund wa the first Jewish political organization to encourage and support the idea that Jews should take up arms to protect Jewish life and property  By 1905 the Bund had 35,000 members
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