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University of Toronto St. George

HIS220Y1Medieval Society Studies 1500 years 1500 yearsRoman Empire 5001000 yearsBarbarians 10001500 yearsCatholic ChurchAct 1Roman Empire 1500 AD The more north in geography less influence Romans have Rise of Christianity started off as an illicit religion later Constantine became emperor and allowed Christianity to be practiced openly He then moved the capital to Constantinople in Byzantium Empire then cut in half western and eastern Empire Barbarians put an end to the western empire and ended city lives depopulation and plague 5001000 AD Center of power shifts north to Germanic areas Barbarians invaded Europe and push out the Celts from the old empire and took over The Barbarians turned the Roman cities into self efficient countries The center of Roman activity moved to Constantinople with the emperor Justinian The bishops have taken over the administrative responsibilities in the few remaining isolated cities the monks and nuns set up communities protected by local lords to continue the practice of opus dei they became powerful through their prestigeThe monks became important St Benedict set out rules for monasteriesJustinian lawmilitary Mobilized military against the Persians but his wife Theodora persuaded him to focused on the west and reconquered Italy just to be invaded by the Lombards He also developed law legal experts developed the corpus iunis ciuilis codex of Roman laws The digest is a collection of Roman legal arguments and records Institutes are 4 books as a guide to the digest thSpread of Islam 7 century invaded and conquered the east and south of the Mediterranean and all the way to the gates of India 711 AD Arabs cross Gibraltar and conquered Spain 732 AD the Arabs went into the edge of France and were met by Carl Hammer he was able to push back the Muslim intrusion The Arabs closed off the Mediterranean as a trade route Charlemagne was made the king of the Franks a civilized barbarian every year he would start campaigns and expanded his power which became the first European community then went down to Rome to aid the Pope and Charlemagne was crowned him as the Emperor of the west Story goes that Charlemagne said if hed known that he was crowned he wouldnt have showed up because it meant he was subordinate to the popeNew threats for Charlemagne and his successors Hungarians from the East Vikings from the North Arabs from the south Difficult to defend for a centralized government decentralized governments with vassals and local lords can provide quicker response to local threats SelfsufficiencyloyaltyEnd of Act 1After Constantine wins due to this mother he builds lot of churchesLater he moves to the east and creates Constantinople by fishing village of ByzantiumAct 2 Shift of eastwest axis of Roman Empire to NorthSouth axisGermanic Frankish people push the Celtic people to a fringeCeltic Fringethth 6 Century 500Barbarians Frankish tribes AngleSaxon tribes Austro Gothic tribes Visi Gothic tribes LombardsRomans are in ConstantinopleChristians are affected as they were city based but were razed and reduced Bishops act as head of church communityShift from city based Roman life to country based lifeMonks NunsThey keep quite but play an important roleStart by imitating the Egyptians the meditating priestsSt Benedict writes rules Regula in 525Activity of Justinian Emperor of East EmpireEmperors are famous for lawmilitary achievements Justinian had bothHe drove out the Vandals in North AfricaHe moved to West and reconquered Italy but soon driven out as he had to deal with affairs of the east and didnt have sufficient troops to leave as defense of ItalyThen Lombards moves and settle down in the northern ItalyJustinian orders publish of Roman lawsCoipus Iunis Civilis Body of Civil lawsInstitutes4 volume books for beginnersDigestStudy of LawCodeActual lawsIslamic Movement632Death of prophetIslamic soldiers conquered middle east and land up to gates of India within 100 yearsCrossed North Africa and took down Moorish with some difficulty711crossed into Spain732Crossed Pyrenees into France but defeatedPyrenne piecesHe wrote a book MohamedCharlemagneCharlemagneCharles the great 800Charlemagne Charles the greatHe went to help the Pope and becomes an emperor He claims that he wouldnt have gone if he knew the Pope was going to crown him This means somewhat the Pope is superior to himHe creates a community which will become EuropeHe went on military campaign every yearAct 3Church 10001500 Everyone would travel to Rome to see the ruins and see the tomb of Peter and Paul Bishops were local lords as well the spiritual leaders Responsible for raising armies defending the local areas and making sure people were fed The monks carried the Roman traditions forward and formalized the languageBirth of nations nation states People see themselves as Franks who live in a specific area rather than one
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