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University of Toronto St. George
Vasilis Dimitriadis

DEFINITIONS BACH SYSTEM • neo-absolutist system in AUSTRIA • system of centralized control • Germanization - made German the compulsory language throughout Habsburg empire (did not sit well with ethnic minorities) • control and spying by secret police • no assembly, no free speech, no newspapers • emancipation of the serfs - peasants then supported the state GUSTAVE COURBET • painter • first one to coin the term “realism” • first painting was self-portrait of a man in despair • painted other moments of reality -boredom, stray dog, hopelessness -then painted a lesbian couple -and then female genitalia • shocked the bourgeois society • romanticism didnʼt show despair or other dark moments of “reality” • realism = realistic approach, painting things exactly as they were seen -artistic movement as response to revolutions of 1848 presented the lower class on the canvas so they can remind upper class who they • pushed back to the lower class SLAVOPHILES • one of two intellectual movements that emerged in RUSSIA • rejected western European influence • did not want industrialization • believed industrialization led to revolutions of 1848, did not want the same fate for Russia • wanted to keep the Tsar, religion, conservatism 1832 REFORM ACT • in BRITAIN expanded the franchise • • voting rights extended to cities and to 3-4% of population • enough to satisfy the new industrial middle class • lessened political opposition CORN LAWS • in BRITAIN abolished in 1846 • • cheap grain could now be imported • before, it allowed aristocracy to sell their grain at high prices and lower classes couldnʼt afford them • less pressure from the lower class, they could now afford grain • this prevented a revolution in Britain CHARTISM • political reform in BRITAIN before 1848 • many working class movements • called for the right to vote, seats in parliament, etc. GEORGE HAUSSMAN • Napoleon III hired Haussman to change the layout of Paris • downtown core was torn down and rebuilt • large boulevards • Paris became accessible to every citizen • much cleaner, eliminating disease, clean water • working class could no longer afford to live downtown • the point was to eliminate possibility of uprising and riots, and to make it easier for the French military/police to intervene and access the streets if such events occurred • Haussman was fired because of how much the project cost, huge scandal EMS TELEGRAM • in 1870 Bismarck edited a telegram from the Prussian king to make it look like he was insulting the French • this was published, and the French were outraged • Bismarck published Napoleonʼs earlier demands for Belgium and Luxembourg to show • Napoleon III as an aggressor (just like his uncle, Bonaparte) • declared war against Germany • Germany crushed France and second empire JULY MONARCHY • an elite enterprise • Louis Philippe I as the King of France • limited public assembly • ruled just like the previous monarchs • did not make any political reforms FRANKFURT PARLIAMENT • also called “Professorsʼ Parliament” • established in an attempt at political change and reform • to provide rights, universal male franchise, and for German unification • wanted constitutional monarchy to rule over entire German nation (not small states) • limit rights of the monarch • made up of middle class • suppressed the artisans and working class • nothing came of them, as all they did was debate rather than make actual change GUISEPPE MAZZINI • Roman republican • defeated by revolutionary France • his nationalism was inclusive, wanted to be a single state • if you did not belong to our group, you did not have rights CAVOUR • wanted unification of northern Italy • PM of Piedmont-Sardinia • proposed Piedmont-Sardinia constitution • only constitution to survive the 1848 revolutions • united Kingdom of Italy, became PM • allowed piedmont to become a new great power in Europe SOCIAL DARWINISM • Darwinʼs ideas of: natural selection, survival of the fittest, nature selects the best, strongest • these concepts taken in political and social terms • survival of the fittest would = nationhood • British believed they were the fittest and strongest and thus they had right to take over • one of the justifications for European imperialism and colonization DUAL MANDATE • British concept of moral and material consideration • obligation to improve the economy of the territory they were colonizing • they had to elevate standard of living in territories and improve economies in order to profit themselves • one of the justifications for European imperialism AVANT-GARDE • late 19th century • artists rejected the way society was, and the way it was entertained • avant-garde did not accept norm of society • included new art movements such as cubism, impressionism, symbolism, expressionism • goal was to set new trends as direction for the people, not reflect on society as it was • the changes undermined stability of society • depicted changes of second industrial revolution EMMELINE PANKHURST • British womenʼs rights advocate • feminism grew from her • rejected typical British approach for gradual change • believed only way for women to achieve change is through violence • became known as SUFFROGATES • resorted to violence, breaking windows, etc. to put pressure on the state • what changed the stateʼs opinion was WWI, after that they needed women to work in factories • 1819 - most states gave women the right to vote (except France + Italy, which gave them rights after WWII) 1848 HUNGARY REVOLUTION • the only successful revolution, they separated from Habsburg empire • declared independent state in 184 • Hungarian nationalists were also blinded to their aspiration to create a unified Hungary, without any concern for other minorities -Romanians, Serbs, etc. • Vienna offered rights to the minorities in Hungary =created civil war in Hungary • Russia and Austria fought against Hungary and the revolution was defeated • Hungary joined with Habsburg empire once again • failure because of their own short-sightedness HOLY ALLIANCE • created for the purpose of not allowing revolutions to succeed • no change through revolution would be accepted by autocratic states • Austria begged Russia and Prussia to help against Hungary • Russia agreed • ended the revolution in Hungary NATIONAL WORKSHOPS • gave the people “right to work” • eliminated employment • created by 2nd republic of France • liberals did not like this, they wanted to get rid of the workshops and end the revolution • the peasants were brainwashed by the bourgeoise and voted for the liberals • but when they found out the government wanted to shut down the workshops there was an uprising • government brought forces into Paris and killed many workers, radical movement was destroyed BISMARCK • conservative ember of Frankfurt Parliament who immediately decided that the fate of Europe will be decided through force • became Prime Minister of Prussia • lead to unification of Germany • initiated the war between France and Germany • declared war against Austria, wiped out the army • Germany had military advantages because of industrialization • Austria pulled out of German confederation • Prussia as sole power of German confederation • united Germany KULTURKAMPF • meaning “culture struggle” • the struggle between the church and Bismarck for control over Germany • nationalism used to identify the Poles as a threat to Germany, since they were Catholic -excuse to limit their political and civil rights PAN-GERMAN LEAGUE • established in 1891 • to nurture and protect the ideology of German nationality as a unifying force • dealt with Polish question - anti-Semitism • nationalism used as a tool to promote interest of the state NIHILISTS • wanted to destroy all authority of state power in Russia • rejected all efforts of modernization • resorted to terrorist activity • assassinated Alexander II • vs Populists who wanted to educate the working class • neither worked ALEXANDER II • Tsar of Russia • decided to make change • in 1861 serfs were emancipated • Tsar allowed limited political freedom • regional parliaments = ZEMSTVO • Tsarʼs parliament = DUMA • all these changes were too late and not enough • people wanted revolution • anarchistic • resorted to terrorism DREYFUS AFFAIR • new wave of nationalism - anti-semitism in 1880s • identifying ethnic minorities as the cause of all of societyʼs problems • JEWISH man accused a French captain for spying on the Germans • he was exiled • it was actually a french military officer who was guilty • tried 3 times until he was finally found innocent, allowed back into military • France was divided on their opinion on the trial - pro and against ESSAY CONCEPTS WHY ALL 1848 REVOLUTIONS FAILED • liberalism failed to achieve anything no voting rights • • no just society reasons: • division of revolutionaries themselves • classes donʼt have identical objectives -middle class didnʼt want social revolution, they wanted political revolution -division between peasants, bourgeisie, working class, etc. • skilled vs unskilled workers • nationalist goals destroyed Prussia: • frankfurt parliament failed to achieve anything • Bismarck realized unification can only be achieved through force • Frederick IV came back into power • eliminated universal franchise • only the rich could vote • separated out all the working class • freed the serfs • middle class gave up on some of their demands Hungary: • wanted unified state, but did not recognize rights of other ethnic groups other than Hungarians • Austria used it to their advantage to break up the revolution Austria: Bach System - neo-absolutist • • secret police, oppression of the people • made German the main language • largest minority (Slavic) wanted to connect to Russia • centralized, germanization • CONCORDA
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