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Complete Notes for 19th Century Europe

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University of Toronto St. George
Anthony Cantor

th19 Century Europe The Legacy of the French RevolutionThesis modern Europe emerges from the French and Industrial revolutions This introduced modernity in EuropeWhat do we mean with modern EuropeLiberalism equality law etcWhat did it end What did it startThe French revolutionary and Napoleonic eras 17891815 launched the modern period in European history Europe had so irrevocably changed after 1815 that contemporaries distinguished the period before 1789 as the old regime To be sure many features of the old regime continued into the new era but the sentiment of sudden rupture was largely valid In various dimensions of public life the radical transformations of the French Revolution rendered many prerevolutionary attitudes toward society and politics obsolete Following the abolition of feudalism the declaration of civic equality and the subordination of monarchy to national political sovereignty traditional authority became irretrievable Brophy 376The French Revolution made changes in the map significantlyDechristianization 1789 becoming year 1 etcwere not long lasting thoughRights ofmen not womanand some universal rightWas part of a longer social and economic changeThe French Revolution overthrew Louis XVI and created a government committed in principle to the rule of law the liberty of the individual and an idea of the nation as a sovereign body of citizens These political changes also opened the way for the expression of a wide variety of social grievances by peasants labourers women and other social groups in Europe The FR encouraged the of democratic ideas but it also led to an increase in the power of centralized nationstates in Europe The pressures of the revolutionary wars led governments to develop larger national bureaucracies modern professional armies new legal codes and new tax structures The French Revolution was part of a broader set of changes which rocked the Atlantic world at the end of the eighteenth century Along with the Haitian Revolution and the American Revolution this wave of cataclysmic change reshaped the political order of Europe and the Americas Judith CoffinEndingsAncient Regime Aristocracy corporation and privilege confessional state Dynastic diplomacy colonial slavery and the general nature of thingsFrench Revolution was by nature destructive Destructive of the order of things and privilegesCatholic Church was largest body of land owner privileges and corporationRevolutionary liberalized people dissolved papal states and created a new Roman Republic The Pope was in captivity in France and died there However this was not the end of the Papal
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