HIS 242H1

99 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Jennifer Jenkins

HIIS 242 Mid-Term Review Notes Week One- One World Ends and Another Begins Pgs 1-67 (January. 11 )h Europe at Zenith, 1914 (chapter one) Qualities gave Europeans a commanding position on the globe in 1914 o Thought of themselves as the civilized world o Future seemed to promise the eventual Europeanization of the world o In 1914 more Europeans in the world than ever before or since Europe and the World Not through their numbers, but through their dynamism that Europeans dominated the world in 1914 th During the 19 century Europeans had become the first people to alter their physical environment almost beyond recognition Europe retained a decisive economic lead o 56% of worlds coal o 60% of the worlds iron and steel European Traders, Travelers and Investors Rest of the world was being increasingly drawn into a single world economy with Europe at its hub o European mercantile practices o International accounts for companies all over the world were usually settled in London o British firms owned 70% of the worlds shipping o Freer international trade was the capstone of this classical-liberal system Brief period from 1860-79, the worlds major trading nations imposed almost no tariffs on foreign goods, and other kinds of restrictions on trade virtually vanished o Dynamic Europeans were not content to merely trade with and travel to the rest of the world, they also invested their money there www.notesolution.com In 1914, Europe was the source of 83% of the worlds foreign investments Imperialism Enterprise of the late 19 century- the direct seizure of immense tracts of land around the world o All around Africa except Liberia and Ethiopia Russia established itself as a major pacific power with the completion of the Trans-siberian Railroad (1891-1903) Only Japan managed to stem the european tide, by adopting European industrial techniques with great success Some colonies were almost purely commercial propositions Territories acquired in the rush from 1885 to 1914 were rarely suitable for European settlement Europeans were able to defend their world empires in 1914 because of their near monopoly of modern military force o It was unheard of for native forces to gain more than a temporary advantage over the europeans European Artists and Scientists No American physicist or chemist expected to excel in his field without European study European Landscapes: Urban and Rural Europe was the most urban of the continents in 1914 o Northern and western Europe first region in which a majority of the population lived in towns and cities o Fastest growing cities and towns were the newer, industrial ones By the 1990s, Europe remained the most urbanized continent Social and intellectual impacts of urban living Life in the City Industrial revolution poured more crowds into these slums www.notesolution.com 19 century city-builders operated with a maximum of speculative real estate development and a minimum of planning, except to locate the new wealthy quarters west European reactions to their cities at the opening of the 20 century was ambivalent In the midst of its magnificence the city seemed to many a human wasteland th European cities were still irresistible magnets as the 20 century opened o Ambitious moved bc cities offered far wider opportunities for welth and fame than the countryside o Rural poor moved bc a bad job was better than none Much of European creativity could not be imagined without the environment of towns and cities Life in Peasant Europe Traveler crossing the Elbe river into eastern Europe entered a world radically diff from the efficient commercial farms and urbanized majorities of western and northern Europe Russian nobility and gentry still owned 14% of the land o Same was true in southern Europe o Southern italy and spain were dominated by enormous estates o Landowners excercised social and economic sway in their regions far beyond the power that came from holding local political office Agriculture was grossly inefficient o One third of Russian peasant holdings still lacked steel ploughs Population of eastern and southern Europe was underemployed In eastern and southern Europe a mass of land-hungry peasants formed a powder keg of unrest ad anger on the eve of the first world war The Rich and The Poor Class and Social Rank Society was highly stratified in Europe in 1914 www.notesolution.com
More Less

Related notes for HIS242H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.