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Lecture Notes Up to Mid-Term.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Jennifer Jenkins

HIS 242thThursday January 12 2012World War One 19141918 1 Diplomacy and Failures of Diplomacy The July Crisis 2 Trench Warfare in the West 3 Violence and PoliticsEurope was at the zenith of its power approx 400 million people 25 of the worlds populationIndustrial society as well as industrializing society o Imperial and colonial society with products coming from around the worldColonial rivalries between Britain and France and even Germany showed that there was going to be tension between the countries Threats of violence ignited first in colonial disputes over territories which would move over into all of European eventually Boer War and the German War 19047 gave a test of Wars to comeo Boer war brought the Concentration Camp into being first time it was seen o And the German War was a genocide warAll of the Empires save the British would all fall and disappear from the map o Britain would come out of the war as one of the great winnersFirst taste of Mass Industrialized death and the type of warfare that was going to be possible through machine guns and chemical warfare o Machine guns were often used with horses and horse drawn carts as motorized transport was not yet widely availableo Barbed wire was used in trench10 million died in conflict not only soldiers but mostlyo Firs time civilians were seen as enemy combatants and could been attacked as suchFrance and Germany lost 2 million men each Generation of young men1922 37 of that generation were killed Tanks and aircrafts first time seen in war o Left a legacy of hatred o Took away the hope of a bright future and the possible change for a better worldThe Path toward a General European WarAll starts in Sarajevoo Started with the assassination of Franz Ferdinando On a trip to Bosnia to observe military manoeuvres drove to the countryside in an open car like a convertibletho Bad choice lots of hostility in Bosnia June 28 was a very important day but it was the Red Letter Day for the Serbian Nationalists the Black HandRadical Nationalist group which made the male members take a death oath upon joining o Serbia was a new state o June 28 1839Serbia was crushed by the Turks in Kosovo th Which made June 28 a big day o Group of 5 young men 4 Bosnian Serbs attempted to assassinate Ferdinand on his trip through towno Attempt to kill him twice tried to bomb bomb bounced of the car o Driver took a wrong turn had to turn around one of the assassins went up to the car and shot him o Direct challenge to Austria Hungary and there was going to be some sort of action but didnt know what it would be July Crisis5 days later the killers confessed o They didnt act isolated they were aided and funded by the Serbian GovernmentSerbia was the Rogue state of Europe in 1914 oAustriaHunagary ministers said that a war needed to happen against Serbia but did not want to go in aloneo A much more limited confrontation could have happened but instead something much larger was to begin o July 31 Russia began to immobilize their massive armiesDidnt think this assassination would lead to a world war o Triple Alliance Germany Italy AustriaHungaryo Triple Entente England France and Russiao Public support a public appetite for war it was wanted it was common popular o Thought that a war would solve problems that it would cure things that it would break the deadlock between the power and open up EuropeHave some kind of curative effect on domestic social problem some kind of national solidarityAustriaHungary went to Germany for back up o Germany gave Austria all of their support o Russia sides with Serbia the big brother to Serbia o Serbia rejects the AustriaHungary treaty the Russian army mobilizes their armyo Believed that the war had been short defined and containedo To win this type of war countries had to mobilize as quick as possible have one grand battle and the victor would win the war No UN and communication between heads of statesInterlocking alliances turned into interlocking battlefields
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