Study Guides (248,235)
Canada (121,420)
History (275)
HIS243H1 (21)
Final

HIS243 Final Exam Review Part One.docx

11 Pages
84 Views
Unlock Document

Department
History
Course
HIS243H1
Professor
Nicholas Terpstra
Semester
Fall

Description
th th Social Structures in EME (Lectures sept.16 - sept. 28 )  In EME cities were vry crowded o Little sanitation and social life  Smell cities before you could see them  Piles of human waste on streets, rules to how high they could be  1348- Black Death/ Bubonic Plague o 35% o 50% o 75% o Of pop death o Said to be fleas on rats but not 100% sure o Florence at time of BD had 140,000 inhabitants by end it had lost 2/3 of its pop  Struggles through whole century o London had 60,000- 70  Goes down half  Families collapse o In diff parts of Europe plagues reoccur every decade  Constant population change o In 1590s and 1630s new plagues  70 million before death, 50 million after  Takes 100 years to recover o 14 or 15% of world population dies o 1650- 75 million o Most population lived at mediterrainean o Northern population expands rapidly  Before focus on south, now its shifts to the north  Key centers of trade  Before it was Venice, now Antwerp and Amsterdam  Very few Europeans lived in cities o 10% o Europe is very rural  However by end of period all growth is now in the cities o North fastest o All pop growth comes from people moving in o Dangerous place to live  Theft, plagues as cty is unhealthy  Most cities cannot generate growth internally  Come in die, come in die o Young ppl (teens early 20s) as they were most mobile  Cities have young pop  Women tend to move more than men  Not like NA farms, most people continued to work if you were farming o Lived in villages, and work plots in diff places around villages  In villages, the church, may have more than one plot  Always traveling to diff plots o Rural life marginal bc constantly growing pop but not enough land, therefore you have to leave o Low seed growth 1 to 3 o Always right on margin of starvation or in starvation bc every year crop failure, drought, flood  Difficult to save things  Farmers cannot take risk bc they need to save o Own diff types of land in diff ways  Free hold- owned property (bought, inherited)  Tenants- land is owned by person in manor house, and they are persons tenants  Payments in crops, labor  Italy- 16 century share cropping- have some land by landlord (land) and you divide labor and share  Davante is that there is no need for capital or seed, livestock o All needed is muscle o The landlord shares the pain with you o Spread rapidly bc works for both parties o Any many people cannot afford capital it takes o As BD rises ppl desperate for land o 1350- good  After drops bc no workers, prices fall, wages rise o 1450- expand again as well as agric o More use of industrial crops- hemp, flax, mulberries  Silk worms eat mulberry leaves, and thus development of silk  Any areas that is going to expand needs trees for silk worms  Crisis of not enough food o After 1560s new plague of starving ppl o At this point food could not be shipped far (spoil) o Indus crops could be shipped but not done o Much of thls diet is vegetable due to fact it is local o By 16 century growing grains and exporting it o Italy looks to Baltic and Spain for grain o Cities try to control rural areas as source of food  Pass laws saying cannot sell grain outside of city  Provide premiums for farmers from away to sell food to their town o No meat usually eaten, more eaten before than after o Southern more vegs than Northern  Move directly to cities or shift around before o Not welcome bc another mouth to feed  If famine hits, city council pass law that everyone who is recent has to leave  Sometimes as far as 10 yrs  In 16 century ppl forced out, increase in beggars o Tension between rural and city o City is seen as safe, rural as dangerous Social Structures in EME  Bologna has symbol of two towers  Campanilismo- bell towers o Convents, monasteries o Other towers are family towers  Defense, statement  Towers packed with supplies and during civi war take family and wait inside o When cities start changing, ppl are ordered to bring down their towers  Some are destroyed  Siena- church vs state powers  Antwerp- big cathedral tower o Mostly church  People had string attachment to their cities, even though 10% lived in cities o Saints days, baquets, aerial views of cities put on walls o Homogenous everything jumbled together o We tend to study urban not rural history o Most of euro is rural, therefore cities stand out  Social settlements- o Wealthy and poor live near o Wealthy tend to build houses in the middle of the city o Bologna- rich lived in middle, poor lived on outside of the city  Even pthrer ppl lived on the outside of the city walls  By 15 century relig shrines appearing on outside of city walls  If shrines on inside of walls assumed you were protected internally  Cathedral is where the bishop resides- voice of pope  Civic church is what the civil council pays for, not direct from rome  CITIES LIKE BOLOGNA BUILT THEIR QUARTERS AROUND POLITICS, AND CITY SQUARE WAS WHERE THEY ALL GATHERED TOEGTHER  To hold power must control city square  Usually ppl loyal to the city as well as their quarter  Intense competition among districts o Venice- made up of 60 little islands  Maritime city  Divided into 6th  Each had 6 had diff islands  Each island had own identity, as well as tower  Each considers itself indiv within whole  They had fights for bridges o Bridge battle  Before no rules, or rules of conduct  Eventually become two groups that battke  They fight on bridges  Idea is to get opponent of bridge  RITUAL EXPRESSES DIVISION WITHIN THE CITY o Rituals of solidarity  Head of Venice was doge  Owns boat called Bucentaur  Every august 15 ritual procession in which Doge gets in bat and everyone else follows in their boats  Doge “marries” the sea  RITUALS OF SOLIDARITY FOCUS ON RELIGION, FOOD  RITUALS FOR DIVISIONS GO ON ATHLETICS  Neighborhood is focus of civic life o As well as social, political, and religious life  Political-  City council is made up of reps from neighborhoods  If wanted to get into city politics had to control neighborhood o Build palace and act as broker o Provide employment, food, services  Arrange marriages, dowries o Sometimes have people fight in you army (if have tower) o Florence-  Medici knew that if wanted to control city had to start locally  Another important banking fam was Bardi  Strozzi was another family  Each build house at core of neighborhood  Poor people moved around, but others did not  Working class area of Florence (Indus side) called Oltrano Life Cycles in EME  Europe at the time seen as family networks, not indiv  EME has highest infant death rate o Great chance of death at birth o 30% of children die before first bday o 30-50 before fifth birthday  Natural causes  Malnutrition  Gastrointestinal diseases  Plagues  Abandonment o In certain cities o May be picked up by ppl o Go into institutional home  Foundling home- first in Florence  Hundreds of babies dropped off each year  Special door to slide baby in  Highest death rate of babies is in foundling home o Unsanitary conditions  Girls who have been raped and have children  Father does not recognize the baby  More girls abandoned than boys  In less wealthy homes, children nursed by mother and raised in family homes  Wealthy homes send children away and have them raised o Wet nursed used o Sent away within weeks  By age six children are put out and meant to become productive member of society o Earn money living and working as family o If in a moderate family may become an apprentice  Baker  Tailor  Cook  Simple tasks and gradual increase into journeyman and broaden tasks  Eventually become master  Father/ Uncle usually makes decision about what to do as skill  Tkes into consideration sklls of child  Father and master sign contract o Sometimes does not stand and masters leave o Poor families may become servants  In EME your job was it, no permanence and could change everyday  42% of male and 32% of women were servnts (1427)  Job seen as stepping stone to other things  When become a servants in a household, you identity becomes connected with that family  Your birth family is not as imp  Temp agencies set up contracts o Paid (maybe) at end, given room and board as well as shoes and clothes o In case of women 3 or 5 years at end of
More Less

Related notes for HIS243H1

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit