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HIS243 Final Exam Review Part One.docx

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Nicholas Terpstra

th th Social Structures in EME (Lectures sept.16 - sept. 28 )  In EME cities were vry crowded o Little sanitation and social life  Smell cities before you could see them  Piles of human waste on streets, rules to how high they could be  1348- Black Death/ Bubonic Plague o 35% o 50% o 75% o Of pop death o Said to be fleas on rats but not 100% sure o Florence at time of BD had 140,000 inhabitants by end it had lost 2/3 of its pop  Struggles through whole century o London had 60,000- 70  Goes down half  Families collapse o In diff parts of Europe plagues reoccur every decade  Constant population change o In 1590s and 1630s new plagues  70 million before death, 50 million after  Takes 100 years to recover o 14 or 15% of world population dies o 1650- 75 million o Most population lived at mediterrainean o Northern population expands rapidly  Before focus on south, now its shifts to the north  Key centers of trade  Before it was Venice, now Antwerp and Amsterdam  Very few Europeans lived in cities o 10% o Europe is very rural  However by end of period all growth is now in the cities o North fastest o All pop growth comes from people moving in o Dangerous place to live  Theft, plagues as cty is unhealthy  Most cities cannot generate growth internally  Come in die, come in die o Young ppl (teens early 20s) as they were most mobile  Cities have young pop  Women tend to move more than men  Not like NA farms, most people continued to work if you were farming o Lived in villages, and work plots in diff places around villages  In villages, the church, may have more than one plot  Always traveling to diff plots o Rural life marginal bc constantly growing pop but not enough land, therefore you have to leave o Low seed growth 1 to 3 o Always right on margin of starvation or in starvation bc every year crop failure, drought, flood  Difficult to save things  Farmers cannot take risk bc they need to save o Own diff types of land in diff ways  Free hold- owned property (bought, inherited)  Tenants- land is owned by person in manor house, and they are persons tenants  Payments in crops, labor  Italy- 16 century share cropping- have some land by landlord (land) and you divide labor and share  Davante is that there is no need for capital or seed, livestock o All needed is muscle o The landlord shares the pain with you o Spread rapidly bc works for both parties o Any many people cannot afford capital it takes o As BD rises ppl desperate for land o 1350- good  After drops bc no workers, prices fall, wages rise o 1450- expand again as well as agric o More use of industrial crops- hemp, flax, mulberries  Silk worms eat mulberry leaves, and thus development of silk  Any areas that is going to expand needs trees for silk worms  Crisis of not enough food o After 1560s new plague of starving ppl o At this point food could not be shipped far (spoil) o Indus crops could be shipped but not done o Much of thls diet is vegetable due to fact it is local o By 16 century growing grains and exporting it o Italy looks to Baltic and Spain for grain o Cities try to control rural areas as source of food  Pass laws saying cannot sell grain outside of city  Provide premiums for farmers from away to sell food to their town o No meat usually eaten, more eaten before than after o Southern more vegs than Northern  Move directly to cities or shift around before o Not welcome bc another mouth to feed  If famine hits, city council pass law that everyone who is recent has to leave  Sometimes as far as 10 yrs  In 16 century ppl forced out, increase in beggars o Tension between rural and city o City is seen as safe, rural as dangerous Social Structures in EME  Bologna has symbol of two towers  Campanilismo- bell towers o Convents, monasteries o Other towers are family towers  Defense, statement  Towers packed with supplies and during civi war take family and wait inside o When cities start changing, ppl are ordered to bring down their towers  Some are destroyed  Siena- church vs state powers  Antwerp- big cathedral tower o Mostly church  People had string attachment to their cities, even though 10% lived in cities o Saints days, baquets, aerial views of cities put on walls o Homogenous everything jumbled together o We tend to study urban not rural history o Most of euro is rural, therefore cities stand out  Social settlements- o Wealthy and poor live near o Wealthy tend to build houses in the middle of the city o Bologna- rich lived in middle, poor lived on outside of the city  Even pthrer ppl lived on the outside of the city walls  By 15 century relig shrines appearing on outside of city walls  If shrines on inside of walls assumed you were protected internally  Cathedral is where the bishop resides- voice of pope  Civic church is what the civil council pays for, not direct from rome  CITIES LIKE BOLOGNA BUILT THEIR QUARTERS AROUND POLITICS, AND CITY SQUARE WAS WHERE THEY ALL GATHERED TOEGTHER  To hold power must control city square  Usually ppl loyal to the city as well as their quarter  Intense competition among districts o Venice- made up of 60 little islands  Maritime city  Divided into 6th  Each had 6 had diff islands  Each island had own identity, as well as tower  Each considers itself indiv within whole  They had fights for bridges o Bridge battle  Before no rules, or rules of conduct  Eventually become two groups that battke  They fight on bridges  Idea is to get opponent of bridge  RITUAL EXPRESSES DIVISION WITHIN THE CITY o Rituals of solidarity  Head of Venice was doge  Owns boat called Bucentaur  Every august 15 ritual procession in which Doge gets in bat and everyone else follows in their boats  Doge “marries” the sea  RITUALS OF SOLIDARITY FOCUS ON RELIGION, FOOD  RITUALS FOR DIVISIONS GO ON ATHLETICS  Neighborhood is focus of civic life o As well as social, political, and religious life  Political-  City council is made up of reps from neighborhoods  If wanted to get into city politics had to control neighborhood o Build palace and act as broker o Provide employment, food, services  Arrange marriages, dowries o Sometimes have people fight in you army (if have tower) o Florence-  Medici knew that if wanted to control city had to start locally  Another important banking fam was Bardi  Strozzi was another family  Each build house at core of neighborhood  Poor people moved around, but others did not  Working class area of Florence (Indus side) called Oltrano Life Cycles in EME  Europe at the time seen as family networks, not indiv  EME has highest infant death rate o Great chance of death at birth o 30% of children die before first bday o 30-50 before fifth birthday  Natural causes  Malnutrition  Gastrointestinal diseases  Plagues  Abandonment o In certain cities o May be picked up by ppl o Go into institutional home  Foundling home- first in Florence  Hundreds of babies dropped off each year  Special door to slide baby in  Highest death rate of babies is in foundling home o Unsanitary conditions  Girls who have been raped and have children  Father does not recognize the baby  More girls abandoned than boys  In less wealthy homes, children nursed by mother and raised in family homes  Wealthy homes send children away and have them raised o Wet nursed used o Sent away within weeks  By age six children are put out and meant to become productive member of society o Earn money living and working as family o If in a moderate family may become an apprentice  Baker  Tailor  Cook  Simple tasks and gradual increase into journeyman and broaden tasks  Eventually become master  Father/ Uncle usually makes decision about what to do as skill  Tkes into consideration sklls of child  Father and master sign contract o Sometimes does not stand and masters leave o Poor families may become servants  In EME your job was it, no permanence and could change everyday  42% of male and 32% of women were servnts (1427)  Job seen as stepping stone to other things  When become a servants in a household, you identity becomes connected with that family  Your birth family is not as imp  Temp agencies set up contracts o Paid (maybe) at end, given room and board as well as shoes and clothes o In case of women 3 or 5 years at end of
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