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HIS243 Final Exam Review Part 2.docx

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Nicholas Terpstra

Printing, Propaganda and Reformation (Oct. 7 - Oct. 12 )th  Invention of Printing o Invention o Three things had to develop before  Paper  Ink  Type  Had a block and cut out image in reverse and transfer it to paper, blocks would be wood  You could do many prints off one block of wood  Spreads to Europe 1250-1350, in china and euro for artwork  Later it is seen as way to block print books, but expensive and did not last long (blocks deteriorate)  Decided to use metal, indiv letters  Not trained as a printer, but as a metal worker (Johann Guttenberg)  Metal opens up new problem, ink before had to be water based  But on metal it does not stick, need to find new ink o From ink move on to painting, oil in their paints o Guttenberg is able to reach across Europe to painters and finds oil  Do not have paper, manuscripts either printed on parchment or vellum  Animal skins  In order to get parchment must go out and slaughter sheep so is costly  Chinese invent papyrus, later spreads to euro 12 or 13 th century via arabs in spain o Not in great supply bc little demand o Euro papers bthed on other fibers (hemp, linen) o Savings 1/6 cost of previous option o Books and audiences, and printers o Cultural consequnces  Begins in 1450s in Mainz by Guttenberg  1395-1468  Developed thorough movable metal type o How did books spread before hand?  Monks used to write books by hand, monasteries  If monasteries wanted new work, they would have ot find who owned it and ask to borrow so able to copy  Inter library loan took months/ years  Sets the model up for how other books are produced  They took model of uni classroom, prof would sit in front and read text while student copied book  Oral transmission of knowledge  This is what book sellers used to do  Ideas traveled slowly, high illiteracy, costly  Printing revolutionizes this method  Guttenberg produces lots of bibles  In early beginnings of PP needed to have something that was desirable to market o Mostly church texts  Bibles, books of the masses o Magic stories  Knights  Romance o As printing develops and more readership, diff things demanded  Expansion of printing and expansion of schools o More textbooks available  GREATEST SUPPLY IS IN NRTHN ITALY, PARIS, COLOGNE o ALL THESE MAJOR CENTERS EITHER HAVE CHURCH OR UNI WITHIN  Aldus Manutius (on Terms pg)  Cultural effects of printing o Rise of editing, comparative editions  Scholarships on texts  Never knew if text represented the original word of author  Polyglot- take text and put it in diff language (on same page)  People became fascinated with comparing diff meanings of a text  Printing- cultural consequnces- o Comparative scholarship on classical texts o Languages – vernaculars (french, German, Italian, English, etc) o Audiences grow, ideas spread (eg reformation) o Authority= literacy  From oral to literate culture o Censorship  Henry 8 of England, 1526  Francis I of France, 1521, 1535  Tries to get rid of press  Does not work  Index of prohibited books  1542, 1559  Effort on part of CC to control hearsay, religious dissent  Last till 1960s  Ideas spread to more people, causing movements  Censorship of religious ideas, so truth can remain in religion  Martin Luther o Reformation becomes a mass movement bc of printing o As writing spreads, literacy becomes a form of authority  To be illiterate is to have lost cultural authority  Notion tht authority comes with literacy and reading Renaissance Art (Oct. 12 – Oct. 19 )h  Painting o Naturalism o Linear perspective o Classism o Chiaroscuro o Perspective landscapes o Medieval backgrounds  Duccio- Maestra  Venice- S. Marco Mosiacs  Heavenly space  Lessons in truths of the faith  All falls apart in the renaissance o Ghirolandio  Angel appears to Zacharias in the temple  Linear perspective  Classicism o Roman temple, classical architecture o Meant to accentuate action in the middle o Public space o Departing from original biblical text o Action in a time, in a place in 3D  Naturalism  Depicted naturally  Look like they could walk and talk  Zach giving name John to son  Linear perspective o Landscape o Linear perspective o Aerial perspective  Have to find ways to create perspective  Vanishing point, above most imp part of the painting  Helps our eyes see this as a 3d painting  Colors is front more intense than colors in the background  Bronze and sculpture o Back to bronze o Free standing o Naturalistic/ classical th Contraposto  15 century Florentine who wants to be portrayed as a Roman o Common of the time  Architecture o Classical models o Proportion o Human Scale o Balance o Engineering  Florence Cathedral o Bruneschelli- dome o Florentines want to build biggest church o Want a dome bc the Romans had a dome  Problem was no one could build a dome  B. says he could make a dome  Inside dome and outside dome Politics: City State to Duchy (Florence) (Oct 19 - Oct. 28 )  City state- Florence (later turns into Duchy)  Background o Stages of Medici control  15 century- republic  16 century- duchy o At the core of diff trading relationships, Florence is an international economy  Wool  Trading (buy raw wool, create lots of wool, ship it out)  Banking  Economy is built on skill, not natural resources  Connections, banking  A lot of wealthy families working together, want republic bc power is shared and rotated through many people, nobody has power for a long time  Build on mistrust  Nobody gets their fortune in one thing alone o Stability ha strong currency, Florin  Used around Europe bc it is reliable o 14 century overshadowed by countries on the sealine o Lacked sea port access, determined to gain more terr as well as sea access  Covet pisa bc has a port  Milan conflict as well  Family Visconti th th  Venice- expands land base o 14 - 15 century constant wars occurring thorougout period  Enemy- Milan  Ally- Venice  Wars very expensive, and they do not use own armies  Causes lots of poli tension o Come up with new taxation system- tax census (door to door) o Two families arise in Florence, fighting over war, tax systems, forced loan  Albizzi- 1433 in power, when Florence get into problem  Blame it on Medici, Cosimo is expelled  Medici- Cosimo (1434-64)  1434- Cosimos allies in power, they call him back o Exiles Albizzi and all his followers o He does not become formal leader o One of wealthiest men in city  He has a lot of allies, clients  Arranges marriages, jobs, loans as long as you support him  Survive bc they manage to connect Medici with other powers  Understands that to stay in power, he cannot have power  Key thing is to keep faction happy (12 other families) o Promoting political careers, marriages  Keep enemies out of circulation  Power sharing  Keep taxes low  Right public profile o Between magnificence and humility  Extensive artistic patronage  Rebuilds local parish (church of San Lorenzo)  Creates public library at St. Marco  A lot of money he puts in, goes to Florentine people  Image of humility, even though ppl know he has magnificence  He does not put himself forward as a poli figure, works indirectly pulling strings  He tries to stop wars Florence is involved in o Proposes alliance to Milan  Peace of Lodi (wont fight in Italy)  1454  Tries to keep taxes low (esp. for supporters) o He gets supporters on tax commisions, and then he puts higher taxes on his enemies o Castellani- 1454  Marries a Strozzi woman, singles him out and ruin him financially  Republic- power is shared widely o Top council, signoria (12 people, live there during time) o M
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