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Final

HIS243 Final Exam Review 3.docx

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Department
History
Course
HIS243H1
Professor
Nicholas Terpstra
Semester
Fall

Description
Politics: Nation-State (France)- (Nov.4 - Nov.11 )  Henry VIII- b. 1491, ruled 1509 (18) o England  Francis I- b. 1494, ruled 1515, 1516 o HRE, Spain  France o Dynasty  Valois  1328-1589  Francis I o Came to pwr in time of political instability o Internal, a lot of divion o 15 century- consolidation of French territory o 16 century- first half internal war, second half external  1494-1559  wars between Valois and Hapsburg  Triggered before Francis had come to throne  France thought they had claim to Naples  Invade in 1494, 1498, 1510  Withdraw in 1512  Italy was place to fight wars, to be able to control it bc of wealth o 1515- comes to power  decides to invade Italy again in 1515  more successful than others, in northern Italy (genoa)  1519-1520- concern and feels need to act against Charles and form alliance against him  almost continuous wars between 1520s and 40s  Valois and Hapsburg  Bring back a lot of italian culture to france  Patron of Da vinci o Dies in 1547, succeeded by son Henri II  Concerned with keeping dynasty on throne, his older brother was suppose to rule but he died  Launches own battle against the Hapsburg until the 50s  Both sides run out of money, have to have peace  Spanish victory in 1559  Peace of Chateau Cambresis  Joust to mark peace, Henri wants to be in it  He gets hit with stick and dies a few days latter  France then becomes consumed in war  Period of stability is prevented bc of extreme instability  Catherine de Medici will do anything to keep power  Almost every son comes to throne, all before or while on it  Not legitimate heirs  She needs to form allies  France church controlled by the monarchy, did nt uspport protestants bc they did not want instability  Closely associated with CC o Protestants grow in france o Urban artisans and merchants o Lawyers o Grows among the nobility  Nobelwoman convert their husbands  Does not have broad mass of the people  Southern france most pop for protestants  Huguenot crescent  Navarre o Sep kingdom, border of france and italy o King and queen o Strngest around Navarre  Conspiracy to try to mount French throne  Guise ultra catholic  1562- Guise come across protestants worshipping and kill them, starts war of religion  CDM is concerned she wants to maintain pwr o Moves closer to protestants o See Guise as threat to pwr o 1560s Protestants advance  Convinces Catherine they are a source of pwr, arranges a marriage  Daughter Marguerite marries crown prince of Navarre (Henri)  1572, wedding in Paris  Catholics are worried  Decide to kill protestants o Key protestants military leader o St. Bartholemew’s Massacre o Catholics rise up in france and start killing local protestants o Marriage goes ahead o Henri of Navarre is imprisoned o War breaks out, bloodiest per of French wars of religion th o 1580s Charles 9 is replaced by Henri III  Three Henri’s  Valois- Henri III  Guise- Henry of Guise  Navarre- Henri of Navarre o War of the three Henri’ o 1589- Henri III is assinated  Henri of Navarre is made king bc all of them dead  Roi, Foi, Loi  Unity is what mattered  Henri of Navarre cnverts to Catholicism to save country  Henri IV  Marriage to maragret is annulled bc no children  Marries Marie de Medici  BEG OF BOURBON DYNASTY  Bourbon Dynasty o 1589-1789  1610- leaves palace, and is assinated  ALL THREE HENRI’ ARE KILLED  The dynasty ended at French Revolution  France dynastically consolidates itself as leading power in continent (17 century)  Effectively bureaucratic  French $ sponsors army within 30 yrs war  Expanding internationally  Dominant political and cultural pwr  Burgundy, Navarre were terr that were semi autonomous, and thought of tht before france  Large units more fragmentation  Loyalty was to city, not HRE sme with France  3 diff kinds of nations  Particularism- HRE  Saxony  Augsburg Religion: Late Medieval Lay Piety (Nov. 11 - Nov 16 )th  Religion o Reformation  Spiritual/ theological  What is the spiritual state of Europe ? o Late Medieval Piety  Give money so mass is said in the name  That is how church make so much money, gains wealth over time (people over time give money, property)  Focused around fear of purgatory  CC  15 century- church know that not everyone could do those works all the time o Come up with payment plan  Indulgences  Something you buy and allows oyu to take time off purgatory  Temporal Indulgence- indulgences for time  Plenary Infulgence- full, takes whatever your death is and pays it in full  Church has to declare a sale of them, travels around, limited time  Not that much money (300 dollars our time)  Tries to help people get into heaven at a cost, shallow person thinks they can live anyway they want an buy indulgences  People realize system is broken, why are we going down money path?  Not right to buy your salvation, leads up to ML  Reformation Spirituality o Radical simplification th o ML (German Monk), early 16 century movement became known as the reformation  In course of studies he has crisis of faith  Decides to give it al up, and join monastery  Suppose to leave family behind and join this NW, they are dead to you  Never feels he has overcome disobidience and has a relationship with gd  Studies Christian NT, and book of Romans/ Psalms/ Hebrews  Shifts his thinking  Linguistic shift in some ways  Hard to explain serious truths in vernacular, return to latin texts  If want a relationship with JC, Lustitia (purity)  Standard  Idea up until tht point through prayer and pilgrimages and indulgences you had to rise to Jesus lusitita using church  Only when you reach standard are you able to go into heaven  Luther comes to the conviction that justice is not what Jc demands for you, bt what JC gives you  But you as a human are incapable of reaching you own, only is jesus reaches down and pulls you up can you reach Iustitia  About giving entirely thought you could do it, must surrender ad he says you are now ready  MEANS NO MASSES, CONFESSION, PILGRIMAGES DO NOT NEED TO HAPPEN ANYMORE  HAVE TO REALIZE THAT YOU CANNOY PURIFY YOURSELF, ACCEPT YOUR OWN IMPURITY  Big indulgence campaign in his terr  Sold by traveling friar Tetzel  Luther issues 95 theses o Indulgences were fraud, robbry and irresponsible bc they let people think you can go ot heaven, robbery bc steal their money o Breaks out in 1517, 18,19, 20 o Church tries to suppress him and send other members of religious order does not help o Try to get him to rome, if you do not turn away from this you will be excommunicated o Response is to burn bull from church o What is Christianity?  Christian narrative brokenness with gd is called sin  Goes back to OT  Have a original pair (adam and eve), put in garden and told to do anything but eat fruit, they do o Rupture o JC sent penalty which is death, ultimate death/ penalty o JC himself sets himself up as the one who will die for humanity  Incarnation  In form JC, he comes to earth to die  He makes himself the sacrafice for human sin  Church is how you repair your broken relationship with JC o Sets out moral code / rituals o Christian message- JC coming to earth, and sacrificing himself for his followers  Salvation- follow code and rituals and you can be saved o JC provides you with tools and you choose to use them  Key Statement- Eucharist o Comes in relig ceremony called mass o Takes bread and calls it his bdy as well as wine as blood  When you eat wafer, you are taking JC within o In order to prepare yourself you must do confession o If enter church- Baptism, Non- Married, Ordination  Priest  Friar/ Monk o Moral code- live right s o Pilgrimage- trip to holy site o Prayer  You can gives things to the church so that the personnel helps yu get into heaven, you can do this stuff but its never going to be enough  Always have more sins against you, then you are able to fix through prayer and pilgrimage  Where do you die? o Cannot get into heaven until totally clean o Go into purgatory  You will eventually end up in heaven o If bad you will go to hell  How much times do u have to spend in purgatory? o When you go to confession/ prayer it takes time of purgatory o Never enough  Wars of religion o 1560-94 o Between Catholics and Huguenots Religion: Reformation as Radical Simplification (Nov.16 –Nov. 18 ) th  The Rfeormation o Spiritual background  Sin and salvation  Church only way to restore right relation with gd  Only path to salvation  Iusticia (righteouness) being right with gd  How to get right with gd  Luther does not believe in indulgences, issue becomes more political  No broad circulation of issues before, Luther’s book spread over Germany in two weeks o 1518, 19, 20 Luther single handedly accounted for half of books sold in Germnay o Time is perfect as printing is at right stage o HRE in upheaval reformation spreads, divides ppl o Political leaders use religious arguments to challenge Charles V o Realize they can take catholic land, wealth of church another reason to follow Luther’s ideas o Charles V has to pledge to Elector of Saxony tht he will give luther a hearing to get his vote as HRE o Diet of worms 1521, Luther naively imagines he will be able to have a religious discussion t poli assembly  Charles wants to bring luther to heel  He refuses to recant  Elector of Saxony kidnaps Luther and hides him for a year which Luther uses to translate the Bible into German o Diet of Worms bans luther’s ideas, criminalizes them  His ideas are plitically toxic  Theological establishment wonders why a monk from a small monastery? Why you? o Radical ideas often come from outside, not trained theologians, a different perspective  Three key points o Sola Gratia- grace alone o Sola Fide- faith alone o Sola Scripture- scripture alone o Grace is theological term for action JC takes to save you o Gives grace after you pray, go to pilgrimage, buy indulgences  Action to trigger grace  LUTHER SAYS NO GD GIVES YOU GRACE o Not action- conviction, trigger grace by simple belief  JC death triggers salvation o Scripture- Catholic theology based on bible, bible interpreted, discussed, debated by councils o Catholic authority= Bible and councils, theologians, decrees of Pope o JC inspires Bible writers, GD also inspires all other forms  Truth evolves, and indulgences are therefore correct o Sola Scripture- Bible alone, no councils etc  Vat of acid on theological estab  Bible only nothing else authoritative  Acid test- something not in bible? Throw it out o No indulgences o No pilgrimmages o No celibate clergy o No cardinals, pope required o Core of protestant message- simple ideas  Destroy 1500 years of Catholic theology o Do you need church? Catholic- could not reach gd without church, priest gives sacrments, saints, Virgin Mary intercede with JC, whole apparatus on earth get on side to present case to JC o Grace alone- deal with gd directly. Radical- direct access to JC  THIS IDEA IS A MAJOR SOCIAL UPHEAVAL  HOW IS SOCIETY ORGANIZED?  CHURCH IS MAJOR SOCIAL INSTITUTION  PROP, MONEY, PEOPLE, POWER o Radical political ideas th o Civil wars of religion in 16 century caused by these radical beliefs  Weird abstract, dangerous ideas o Catholics oppose Protestant ideas as dangerous hearsay o If you believe you can be involved in your own salvation, you will go to hell o It is irresponsible to risk your eternal salvation o Theology is a trained profession o Protestants have diff ideas of authority o Ultimate authority with JC, not pope o Local authority, ppl not priest  We are all priests we al have pwr  Priesthood of all believers o No longer needs nuns, monks existed to pray for others, their own souls o Close monasteries, convents, buildings, land real estate available to be divided out o After death, no purgatory, no waiting heaven or hell o Catholic mass- ritual of the mass  Priest consecrates wine and bread into the bdy and blood of JC  Performs actions perceived by the sense o Protestant- sermon focuses on worship o Preacher explains what bible means, all you need o Catholic- set of rituals performed o Protestant- doctrine learned, focus on literacy, printing o Not everybody literate, those who can read aloud  Read theology in beer halls o Protestants want to go back to simpler life, Apostolic church o CC will recover, our way superior o Lutheranism- state church Germany, Scandinavia o State churchs- church arm of state  Head king and queen o Calvinists- John Calvin exiled to Geneva, a refugee center of religious refugees  French, German, Italian training and publishing center  Key idea- church sep from state, politics have ruined CC o Huguenots- French, Netherlands, Scotland- John Knox  Calvinist 1530 reject state o Radical anabaptists  Ultimate church pure  Join as an adult  Sep church and state as church governs a sinful society  Eventually AB operate outside of state  Organize agric communities  Live a pure life  Tight internal discipline o Woodcuts print out basic ideas o Cartoon protestant propaganda about church  Start out subtle messages  Prot. Vicar in plain clothes, reading from Bible, ordinary people listening, some sitting reading  Catholic side fat priests in lavish clothes, well dressed people not listening, priest ;eaning down to give communion  Another woodcut more insulting  Peasant is shown crapping into pope’s 3x crown, which is show upside down  Main types of Protestants- o Anglican  Church of England  Under Henry VIII  More catholic based o Lutheran  Followers of Luther  Justification through grace by faith alone  Started by ML o Calvinism  John Calvin  Depravity  Pre-destination  Rule of JC in all things  Five points of Calvin State Church- England -(Nov. 18 -Nov. 23 )d  100 years war- between france and england o Had claims to French terr, went to war bc France disagreed o Over course of 100 yrs o English holdings in France are reduced until only Calais in 1443 o Allies with French Duchy othBurgundy o At war until middle of 15 century  15 crises- War of Roses o Civil wars o Diff branches of royal family houses o Lancaster and York  Symbols are roses  Red and white  Descend from a single king  Lancaster- 1399-1461  York- 1461- 85 o Bttle in 1485 btween two fam o Results in a single person winning o Henry VII, marries York Bride  Form new Tudor dynasty o Henry VII is obsessed with keeping new line  Tudor dynasty o Henry VIII (1509-47)  Older brother dies early, Henry comes to the throne  Has more education then brother, most educated Prince of Theology  Marries brother’s widow Catherine of Aragon  Spanish princess  Solidified dynasty, Spanish marriage is good politics  Her children are not surviving, only daughter who remains alive is mary  By 1525, she is 40 and not reproducing  Women can inherit the throne, but whoever she marries will take over  Need strong mil leader on throne  In Catholic Doctrine, cannot remarry if get a divorce  Seeks annulment  Marriage was never valid  Catherine resists annulment  Tries to put outside pressure on her  She is aunt of Charles V, he will not support annulment o He has sacked Rome, and has Pope o Pope is in hands of Charles  Now have to find legal solution  Archbishop of Canterbury is highest head in England  Ecclestial court  Pass a law which eventually forms
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