HIS244 Early Modern Europe 1648.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
David Stiles

HIS244 Early Modern Europe 1648- 1815 January 7, 2014 The “Westphalian” State System – The Peace of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty Years’War in 1648, is said to have represented a major change in the evolution of the nation state. But how much really changed in 1648, and to what extent did Westphalia set the state for broader changes that unfolded over the century-and-a-half that followed? Did it play a role in intensifying the imperial rivalries that kept the continent at war for much of the period? Absolutism – Many of the major states of our period featured a kind of government that historians refer to as an “absolute monarchy,” in which the monarch theoretically enjoyed unlimited, divinely endowed power to what extent is this description accurate? How might it be distorting our understanding of the period? The Enlightenment and the Scientific Revolution – These intellectual movements were associated with, among other things, an increased focus on the liberalization of social and economic life, the application of rationality and a flourishing of natural philosophy, and the beginnings of our modern notion of progressivism How did they transform European society? How did they contribute to the economic, political and social changes of the time? The Commercial, Credit and Consumer Revolutions – The period between 1648 and 1815 arguably saw more radical economic changes in Europe than any other to date. Important financial innovations in the Dutch Republic and Great Britain, when combined with liberal commerce and (eventually) the industrial revolution had a powerful transformative effect. To what extent did these changes affect the social, cultural and political life of Europe and usher in the modern era? The End of the “Early Modern” – Why do historians say that the French Revolution and the Napoleonic wars signal the end of the “Early Modern” and the beginning of the “Modern” period? Is there something distinctly “modern” that emerges in our period of study? If so, what signs of this change can we detect? Course Requirements 1. Tutorial participation (20%) 2. Amidterm examination (short answer and essay questions) on Feb. 13th (20%) 3. Aresearch essay of eight to ten double-spaced pages, due on March 13th (30%) 4. Final exam made up of short answer and essay questions (30%) Essay March 13 th Topics • FrenchAbsolutism and Social, Political and Economic between 1700-1789 • Lecture 1 January 9, 2014 Century Europe and the Peace of Westphalia Abroad picture of life in Europe in 1648 • The great chain of being o Holistic framework through which people could understand the world o Originally ideas of Plato andAristotle and later the Christian world view. o Hierarchy of Being (god on top with royalty below and lastly, everyone else. o Man provides a linkage between physical and mental being (soul) o Permanent arrangement of all things in the universe Population and Living conditions of Europe in 1648 • Small communities centered around the church or nobles of the area • These geographical limitations had impact on their lifestyles • Hierarchical system of local authorities • The locals personally knew their authorities • Newcomers were treated with great scrutiny from the locals until you could be inhabited into society Living Conditions • One room houses of somewhat large families with few possessions • Wealthy families were multiple rooms with more possessions that the usual locals • Agricultural sustainability of grains • Small urban centers • Grains traded for meat or dairy products • Louis le Nain The Cart painting in 1641 • Patriarchic family life • Large family size with many children from a high mortality rate • Threat of famine and disease • Families worked, children assisted the males and women were to work along and producing goods • At this time, children were not the center of family life but rather valued for their own labours. • Boys were valued higher than women. Demographical decline th • First half of the 17 century • “Little IceAge” – harsh winters contributing on poor agricultural growth • Thirty years’ war led to pillaging of any supplies New Demands from Central governments • Conscription of soldiers to governments • Increased taxation to fund war • Declining economy and increased taxation cause problematic family life and living conditions • The peasants were taxed the most rather than the nobles who were exempt mostly from taxation • In order to try and combat this, the peasants would hide their wealth from the tax collectors. • Food Shortages: city officials created food shortages in rural areas by buying up the goods for urban usage. • Churches are focal points with cities built within. Thirty Years War and the Peace of Westphalia and the Treaty of Munster in 1648 1) A“religious War” 1618 – 35 • The war driven by religious conflicts of Catholic and Protestant sects 2) ADynastic War 1635 – 1648 • Driven by conflicts of rulers and absolute powers against other rulers Holy Roman Empire • What is now Germany with city states with different religious beliefs depending on the ruler • The Peace ofAugsburg in 1555, issued that the ruler of the territory determined the religion of their state • Citizens of different religions would sometimes not move their states • The religious conflict did simmer than explode after 1555 • Religious tolerance in Bohemia 1609 • In the 1610’s tensions between religion grow and spread • Open warfare between protestant and Catholics start • Social Cost of War • Pillaging of civilians by troops • Tortured, mass rape, destruction or threat of property • Swedish Cocktail: Forcibly pouring manure down ones throat as punishment • Hanging Tree: community invaded by forces of different religions could hang the “infidels” at mass on the hanging tree. Dynastic Phase 1635 – 1648 • Catholics may solve their issue against Protestantism • France was not the dominating power until 1648 • Cardinal Richelieu was the main player in France during the thirty years war • France favored the protestant military powers • Austrian and Spanish Hapsburgs vs. Franco – SwedishAlliance • Centralized mass authority in France bringing the crown to power. • The citizens rise up against the crown to stop the war. The Peace of Westphalia and the Treaty of Munster in 1648 • End to explicit religious war in Europe • Unprecedented questioning of religious faith, “how could god allow this war?” • The Dutch Republic gains independence from Spain and the Spanish Monarchy • Sets up territorial boundaries • France: becomes the dominant power in Europe after Thirty Years War • Louis XIV was technically king, but since he was only 10 in 1648 Cardinal Mazarin took role as chief minister of France until Louis took power in 1661. • The crown in France took for itself, through taxation the crown made a permanent change in France’s political dominance. Westphalian Soverenity • New era in statecraft • The Westphalian State o Sovereign and political self-determination against Empires and the Catholic Church o “Theoretically” equal to all other states o Westphalian states cannot interfere in the domestic affairs of other states. o Derek Croxton (1999) ▯ Not yet any clear understanding or expression of sovereignty in the Peace of Westphalia Papal and Holy Roman Imperial authority reduced but not eliminated “Although (some) sovereign states existed, they did not recognize each other” as such Hence, no consciously acknowledged international system emerged in 1648. Legacy of the Thirty Years War • International Balance of Power and Relation was first in Europe in the 18th century • 24 of October 1648, the treaties of Munster Osnabruck this ended the Thirty Years 1618-1648 • Two of the powers that signed on, failed to make peace between themselves (France and Spain) • 3 treaties until 1859 and the peace of Pyrenees. • Beginning formal efforts of the international system • The peace of Westphalia • There was an establishment of formal and permanent embassies • This can maintain dialogue between nations • Idea of encouraging and maintaining relations between countries • Legacy of The Peace of Westphalia, permanent embassies • Second legacy was post war conferences, which began several years before he thirty years war • The Catholic and Protestant powers would not meet, catholic at Munster and protestant and Osnabruck • This, Congress of Vienna, The 2nd World War Peace Conference, and The Treaty of Versailles, influenced later conferences. • Frontiers: one the most contribution from a peace conference is an agreed territorial settlement. • Territorial settlements bring the prospects of relations through geographical agreements. • Division is geographical sovereignty. • Westphalia lasted until 1789, an objective international law and borders. • The Thirty Years war was a civil war between the German political system • The German System and area was called the Holy Roman Empire, which wasn’t holy, wasn’t roman and was not an empire. • The Thirty Years war was the beginning of frontiers and boarders. • Holy Roman Emperor was Austrian • Protestant Reformation was translated into Germany. Which also made it a unified empire. • Thirty Years War was a war for Europe’s future, in some way could have large and great powers co exist. • The individual state was the key to international system, you cannot have states without an international system. • To raise armies, to forge alliances. • Secularization of International States • Westphalia, which removed religious conflict from the European agenda, and removing religion from the reasons of war made an international system. Confessional Conflict • Bohemia • Long Term conflicts • Spain: • Religious wars and hatred • Catholic • Religious conflicts could have ruined Europe Holy Roman Empire • Germany lost 40% of its rural population through war. th • Magdevorg , 20 May 1631, Catholic forces burst into the city. • Three quarters of the city were slaughtered, out of a population 20,000 • The Swedish KingAdpolhus • July 1630, King Adolphous lands in Germany • “God” was on the Swedish side • 16 November 1632, the battle of Lutzen whereAdolphous was killed. • Anew power was not religion. • Religion was to be a second point in relations • Religion would lead to a mutual annihilation of the international system • This was known as Secularization Cardinal Richelieu • September 1634, France joined the 30 Years War but although France was Catholic but he joined the Protestant side, because he saw a Hapsburg Catholic success was the worst thing for France and Europe to have. • 19 May 1643, the battle Rocroi was Cardinal Mazarin crushed the catholic Spanish powers. • France was now the dominant power of Europe • 1648, Habsburg falls. • Interest of the state constitute for the legitimacy of the policy. January 14,2013 The Problems of Spanish Decline • Spain dominates Europe as the main power in the European system • By the middle 17 century Spain loses their mantel as the hegemonic power • The “accidental hegemon” – the inheritance of Charles V (1500 – 1558) Charles V • Emperor of the HRE • Each of his 4 grandparents he gained land in Belgium,Austria, Spain and Aragon • France is blocking Spain’s interests of domination • France is weakened by religious conflicts • Spain wants to gain England on their side • Philip II marries Mary Tudor, but it did not bare children Philip II • Contain and defeat France through a policy of encirclement (Spain to the south, England to the north, Habsburg possession to the ast • Centralize the power of the Spanish crown ▯ vast role for the monarchy as clearinghouse for information and decision making • Became a champion of Catholicism and fight the good fight against the evil protestants of northern Europe The Dutch Revolt 1568 – 1648 • The Eighty Years War • Imposition of Counter –Reformation on a largely Calvinist population • Taxation of Calvinists to the Spanish. • The Iron Duke ofAlba (1507 – 1582) after 1567 he transformed discontent into revolt • He increased the taxes of Philip II Dutch Resistance • William of Orange (1533-84) 16 century William of Orange not 17 version • 1572 – Resistance become revolt • 1581 – Northern Provinces declare independence from Spain • Southern Netherlands nobles and population were Catholic • Draining of Spanish economic recourses begins • The English and the Dutch could control the ocean of the coast of the Netherlands • The SpanishArmada is forced into the North Sea by the English fleet • Spanish Armada fails by English naval power • Philip II is devastated by the fall of the “invincible armada” The Crisis of the 1590s • Between 1568 – 98 Spain spent 5 times on its military as the Dutch, French and the English combined. • Spanish gold is growing from colonial aspects • Sales taxes that would suppress the economy • Price controls on grain • The Merchant class began to behave differently from the taxation • The Middle Class attempt to become the nobility • Demographic decline o Harvest failure o Immigration to theAmerica’s • Crown Bankruptcy of 1596 o Treaty with France 1598 that gives up Philip’s policy to defeat France o His son Philip III decreases tension to expand into theAtlantic • Spain’s problematic policy issues creates further power strongholds in the America’s Philip III • Inherited the disastrous Spanish throne • If Philip III had listened to his government, he could have changed the power of Spain • Encourage immigration to build economy • Philip III disliked ruled so much that he had the Duke of Lerma ruled on his behalf. Duke of Lerma • Lerma was interested to his own power and wealth • Don Pedro Franqueza and Don Rodrigo Calderon • Expulsion of the Moriscos (1609) o Islamic population of Spain o Used the Muslims as a reason for gods punishment on finances o Further damages agricultural prosperity • Fall of Lerma to the Duke of Uceda (1618) o Lavish lifestyle in court o Golden ages of Spanish culture o Lerma falls and gives his son power (The Duke of Uceda) Golden age of CultureAmid Decline • Lope de Vega (1562 -1635) • El Greco (1541-1614) a view from Toledo 1597 Philip IV • 1605 – 1665 • The Count – Duke of Olivares (1587 – 1645) • Renewed war with the Dutch (1621) • Catalan and Portuguese revolts (1640) • 1643 Olivares is exiled Inbreeding:ACautionary Tale o Charles II o Could not close jaw properly o Mentally and physically infirm – further breeding of this Hapsburg line was impossible o Could not govern Spain with his mental incapability’s Decline of Spain o J.H.Elliot (1961) January 16, 2014 Louis XIV and the origins of theAbsolute Monarchy What is RoyalAbsolutism? o Asystem of government in which all members of society owe a personal allegiance to the king o In theory, he enjoys absolute power but it is his duty to use his power to protect and benefit his subjects Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) o Absolutely necessary because it was the only thing that could stop society from sliding in barbarians. o “The State of Nature” – experiences in the English Civil War o Hobbes believed that life was solitary, brutish and short. o Individuals would give up a certain portion of their rights for protection by the king known as “The Social Contract.” o In France, the king was responsible for the Estates General Jacques Benigne Bossuet “There are four characters or qualities of royal authority, 1. Royal authority is by divine right 2. Paternal: look after his subjects 3. Absolute, the monarch is always right 4. Ruled by reason, the government is absolute yet uses reason to govern and look after his people o In practice, the Monarchy relied on the nobility support (so not absolute monarchy) The Development of Absolutism o Henry VI of France: 1589-1610 o Edict of Nantes in 1598 o Henry IV of France was born in 1553 and died in 1610. Henry IV is considered one of the greatest kings of France and was instrumental in ending the French Wars Of Religion.ACalvinist, he converted to Catholicism to satisfy the wishes of 90% or more of the population of France. Henry IV was the first of the Bourbon dynasty o “Cultured warrior king” – new faithful body of nobles o The nobility was the nobility of the sword, which became the nobility of the robe (Lawyers, Merchants) and a more capable nobility o Infrastructure; trade barriers, roads, bridges etc. o Assassinated in 1610 at the hands of François Ravaillac o Left son Louis XIII to rule, even though too young Marie De Medici ruled France between Henry and Louis Cardinal Richelieu • 1585-1642 • Chief Minister of France • Louis XIII was too young to rule 1. Royal Power should be supreme in France 2. French power should be supreme in Europe • “To ruin the Huguenot (Protestants) party, to abase the pride of the nobles, to bring back all your subjects to their duty and to elevate your name among foreign nations to the point where it belongs.” • Deployed army against Huguenot’s to take away military and political privileges • Administrative reform: intendants who are the officials directly loyal to the king • Intendants were the bourgeoisies (middle class) • Intendants had a rotation of loyalties • When Richelieu died in 1642 he had set France on a course to make it powerful in Europe. Cardinal Mazarin • Succeeded by Mazarin: Chief Minister of France (1642-1661) • Primarily associated with the reign of the young XIV • Close to and possibly intimate withAnne ofAustria, Louis’ mother. • Combated La Fronde • Anne would have been regent but Mazarin ruled until XIV became old enough for king • When the Nobles fought back in La Fronde, which became Civil conflict In France until 1650. • Both England and Spain were involved with internal affairs so France’s growth went unnoticed • Died in 1661, Louis XIV becomes king fully at age 21 Louis XIV • Louis to his son “Homage is due to kings The Great Concerns of Louis XIV • Prevent a reoccurrence of the France • Disliked Paris for a kingdom • Built the Palace of Versailles in 1668 - 1746 • 35,000 workers built the Palace • Monument to the French Monarchy and the concept of RoyalAbsolutism • Many French peasants were illiterate, so his symbol of Versailles showed his power. Court Culture Jean Baptist Colbert LouisAfter Colbert • 1685, Louis revocation of the Edict of Nantes • 200,000 Huguenots lefts France and caused an economic depression because the Huguenots were the merchants The Wars of Louis XIV • Wars of Devolution 1667-8 against Spain o The War of Devolution (1667-68) o When Louis XIV married Maria Theresa, daughter of Philip IV, she formally renounced her claims to succeed as ruler of any Spanish territory. Louis insisted that this renunciation was conditional on prompt payment by Spain of Maria Theresa's dowry (500,000 gold écus) - an undertaking Spain failed to fulfill. o In 1665, Philip IV died, and was succeeded by his son by his second marriage (to Mariana ofAustria), the four-year-old Charles (Carlos) II. Louis XIV announced that because the dowry had not been paid, and because the local laws of Brabant gave the children of a first marriage priority in inheritance over those of a second, Maria Theresa was the true ruler of much of the Spanish Netherlands. o Louis had an army of 72,000 troops, led by two veterans of the Thirty Years War - Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne, Viscount Turenne and Louis de Bourbon, Prince of Condé. • The Franco-Dutch War 1672-8 o Louis did not reduce his troop strength after the Peace ofAix-la- Chapelle, but increased it. By 1672, the French army numbered almost 120,000 men - 8,000 household troops, 86,000 infantry and 25,000 cavalry. o Louis XIV's foreign minister,Arnauld de Pomponne, worked diplomatically to isolate the Netherlands. The French arranged alliances or benevolent neutrality with Charles II of England (the Treaty of Dover), the Swedes, and various German princes (including Bavaria, Münster, Cologne and Hanover). o Louis saw the Dutch both as obstacles to French expansion into the Spanish Netherlands and as trading rivals. o • The War of the League of Augsburg or Nine Years War 1688-97 • The War of Spanish Succession (1702-1713) January 21,2014 The Tour ofAbsolutist Dynasties Strategies ofAuthority inAbsolutism • France is politically unified and dense in population as opposed to Eastern Europe • The Ottoman Empire was a gateway to a different empire and state The Ottoman Empire • Problems o Dissent from military and nobility o Bandit armies o Growing inferiority in military technology and tactics o Continued expansionist efforts in spite of internal problems o 1683 ▯ Siege of Vienna jointAustrian and polishArmy that repelled the Ottomans. o The government was still trying to expand • Leopold, Arch Duke of Austria o Multicultural nature of theAustrian Empire o More local political autonomy o Strong role for Catholic Church o Strong role for nobility o Where the French had to restrict the power of the nobles, theAustrians embraced it. Fredrick William the “Great Elector” of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia (1620- 1688) • Took power in 1640 • During the Thirty Years War, Brandenburg was hit hard by destroyed property and death • Weak army to keep foreign armies out • Prussian Nobility: The Junkers middle class. • Strong Urban Autonomy • Invested in military power to make more strength in Prussia o Assumed that if he strengthens his army it would lead to territorial expansion. o Made Prussia a trustworthy ally in way • Took power away from Estates o Direct control over the raising of money and invest in country protection o Placated nobility rather than humble them • Mercantilisms Powers o State intervention in the economy to serves the states own needs o Main focus on accumulation of precious metals o Typically included exports, subsided and tariff barriers o Opposed byAdam Smith • The Rise of Russia 1533-1725 o Ivan the Terrible  Reigned 1533 – 84  Killed son  Death began the Times of Troubles  Son Fyodor left no heir upon his death in 1598  Own service gentry  Ruthless leader to gain power o The Time of Troubles  Nobility disagreements  Famine in 1601 – 03  Came to an end in 1613 when the nobility placed 17 year old Michael Romonov (1596 – 1645) o Romonov Dynasty  Crown began to construct an absolutist monarchy, an oppressive on at that.  Law Code of 1649 against the Surfs  Two distinct people at the bottom, Surfs and Slaves which began just slaves o Stenka Razin (1630 – 71)  Revolt of the Cossacks  Populist  “I fight the Boyars (aristocrats) and the wealthy lords.As for the poor and the plain folk, I shall treat them as brothers.”  Tortured and executed by the Russian Tsar o Russia Moves to the Pacific  Interested in fur trade in Siberia  Expanded that was full of fur and many types of animals.  Encountered indigenous people of Siberia which were also introduced to diseases from Russians  Broader increase in travel into Europe o Peter The Great (1689-1725)  Imposing physical presence  Almost 7 feet tall and took throne at 17 from his older sister  Further increase the military and political power in Russia and learn from Western examples like France or Dutch republic  Grand Tour: 1697 – 8 • Leaned customs, religious customs • Learned from that of Cardinal Richelieu • New Bureaucratic System based on merit • Mercantilism • Deteriorated the life of a serf • Social customs: western cultural influence for the upper classes, brining women out of seclusion and banned beards • Saw himself as a great military figure and as a divine figure • The Great Northern War 1700-21 – attacked Charles XII of Sweden and won access to the Balkans in the Treaty of Nystad o Poland  NonAbsolutist example  Poland Lithuania  Monarchy in Poland did not have the tools of expansion  Nobles restricted economic growth  No centralized authority  By 1815, Poland no longer existed as it did in 1600’s  Religious tolerance and cultural tolerance January 23,2014 Civil War and Constitutionalism in England th • What conditions led to the civil war in England in the 17 century? o Two factors 1. Changing nature of the “middling” experience in England society (middle class) 2. Long term consequence of the English reformation • Middling Experience o The middle and upper classes worked together rather than against each other (like France). o Power of government listed by law and to the king o Breakdown in traditional deference: lessening of the gap between the nobility and the middle classes o The nobility reacted harshly towards the middling class o In 1635 the Earl ofArundel arrived in London hoping to be greeted by the mayor, he wasn’t greeted my anyone and sought out the mayor and beat him. o Sumptuary laws: told you what you could buy according to your economic class. For example, velvet could only be bought by the nobility • Impact of the English Reformation o Protestant majority and Catholic minority o Reforming protestants were wealthy through commerce and many believed that the protestant church should be stripped from any catholic influences o Some protestant’s said that Bishops should not be in the church since it was too Catholic. o The Puritans: focus on just god and Jesus and make that the focus of your life, they objected to all forms that were against studying god. o They questioned the difference between law and conscience because the law did not suit their ideologically views o The Network of Puritan assent • The Deterioration of English Politics o Elizabeth dies and James I becomes King o Raised in English court which had a lavish lifestyle o Tutored by George Buchanan who knew that an incompetent king could be overthrown o WroteATrew Law of Free Monarchies in 1597 o James I wasAnglican and liked the fact that it had an almost Calvinist theology o Despised the Puritans and called them anti-authoritarian and rebellious o Disappointed all those who felt themselves radical in the church o Banned the Jesuits and engaged in a low level persecution of Catholics to appease the more radicalAnglicans in politics o Gun Powder Plot: 1605, plot to destroy parliament by bombing it from the cellar underneath. o Guy Fawkes: warned one of his relatives who worked in the House of Commons, • Charles I o Son of James I reigned (1625 – 49) o Divine Monarch and Married Henrietta Maria who was the daughter of Henry IV of France thus being Catholic o Favored the catholic’s from his wife and practice o Hate for Puritans and persecuted them, many puritans moved toAmerica o Loved war and damaged economy while at war against France and Spain o Imposition: trade tax that went directly to the king o Parliament protected the merchants who were pay the tax o March 2 1629, John Finch attempted to close down parliament and Denzil Holles spoke “Zounds, you shall sit as long as the house pleases” o Three Parliamentary resolutions  Any subject paying the impositions anyone counseling their collection o Charles could not call parliament again, if he did he would be attacked, instead he worked alone o Looked into old law rules for taxes, in 1636 Charles won a court case against John Hamden, in this judgment one of the lawyers said “The king can demand any land of his subjects.” o This legal decision caused the Tax Strike of 1636 • The Scottish Invasion of England o Created a need to pay for war and he had to call parliament, which caused “The Long Parliament.” (1640-53) o Sat parliament for 13 years that which gave Parliament real power o Freedom of religion of puritans and Catholics o In 1642, uprising in Ireland that relied on England and Parliament to stop the uprising o Parliament did not wasn’t Charles in part of an army so Parliament created their own army against the kings army • English Civil War o New model army o Mobilization force led by Oliver Cromwell o Charles fled the city where Cromwell’s army took power o By 1646 Charles was captured by Cromwell and was jailed o In Jail Charles gained a lot of attention o Jane Whorwood: tried to smuggle in acid for the bars of the jail to be melted o Levellers: social justice and level social distinctions ,universal male suffrage, and to pay the MP’s o By 1648 the king is tried by Cromwell o The Rump Parliament: people who were not for the trial of the king were kicked out o King Charles was tried and a big spectacle and was tried as a king not as a private citizen o Sovereignty of the country rested with Parliament not the king (God) o Cromwell dissolved the long parliament in1653 o Cromwell becomes a military dictator through Puritan ideals o Intolerant ofAnglicans • The Later Commonwealth o Death of Cromwell in 1658 o Charles II the son of Charles I January 30 2014 The Dutch Republic and the rise of trade What stability (1588-90) • Masterful statecraft Johan Van Oldenbarnevelt as the lands advocate of Holland from 1586 • Lizabath drops support for Oldenbarnevelt • Philip II Consolidating Dutch Power • Territorial expansion vs. Spain in 1590 – 1604 • Economic growth and rise in commerce and shipping • Quantitative and qualitative improvements to the Dutch military from 20,000 men in 1588, 32,000 in 1595 and 50,000 men in 1607 Union of Utrecht 1579 • The Union of Utrecht (Dutch: Unie van Utrecht) was a treaty signed on 23 January 1579 in Utrecht, the Netherlands, unifying the northern provinces of the Netherlands, until then under the control of Habsburg Spain. • The Union of Utrecht is regarded as the foundation of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces, which was not recognized by the Spanish Empire until the Twelve Years' Truce in 1609. • The treaty was signed on 23 January by Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht (but not all of Utrecht) and the province (but not the city) of Groningen. The treaty was a reaction of the Protestant provinces to the 1579 Union ofArras (Dutch: Unie van Utrecht), in which the southern provinces declared their support for Roman Catholic Spain. • The Netherlands were more focused on sending William of Orange to England for diplomacy relations Why were they so prosperous? • Poor nobility and a stronger bourgeoisies and their wealth was more in commerce than land • Strong industries at home • Pioneers in Banking with the exchange Bank ofAmsterdam in 1609 • Their religious tolerance attracted people from other lands (especially persecuted Jewish populations) these people enriched the cultural and economic life in the provinces • Dutch had a serious knowledge of commerce Why did the Dutch need to create a commercial empire? • Asecu
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